What to do in the first hours and minutes an emergency

Each alarm has its own peculiarities and differences. But there is a general pattern of behavior, which is more or less likely to be used in any climate and geographical area.

One of the main rules for a man caught in an emergency situation, says, always consider yourself closer to danger. This means that, in any place, in any situation, even when nothing seems to be will not be a danger, not just to comply with the security measures and precautions. Watch closely for changes in weather conditions, the possibility of an attack of wild animals, do not leave unattended left after the accident things, food, not to scatter them.

The order of salvation depends directly on the state of the person at that particular moment. With the urgent need to leave the danger zone (possible car bomb or aircraft, boats sinking, crumbling buildings, flood zone or a fire), not giving in to panic.

After leaving the area of the accident, you must first determine what else can threaten your life at the moment: avalanches, rockfall, hypothermia or overheating of the body. Depending on the danger and take appropriate action.

In the absence of immediate external threat to life itself should be examined, if necessary — provide immediate first aid yourself.

We must remember that in an emergency, to tragic consequences can result not only in serious injury, bleeding and broken bones, but the running light injuries.

Once you have confirmed that you are missing or damaged, you can not walk, you must:

lead to a state corresponding to the weather, their coats, shoes and a hat, and in the absence of the latter adapted for this purpose piece of clothing, tuck pants into boots or boots;

women in dresses or skirts preferably hold them between their legs so as to obtain an improvised shorts, button up shirt sleeves, all the buttons and zippers.

All this will help avoid at least some mosquitoes and other biting midges, to protect themselves from sunburn and overheating.

In winter, when deep snow trousers have stretched over the tops of shoes to avoid falling into the snow.

When the frost and wind face close scarf or any makeshift mask and improvised material. In sub-zero temperatures, all of the above actions are mandatory, even if at first felt comfortable condition. Heating open and windswept areas of the body requires extra energy consumption, and hence the additional consumption of food calories to recover the loss which in extreme cases may not be possible, because, while maintaining the "internal" heat of the body, a person saves and saves food supplies.

 

In October 1704 the English captain William Dampier ordered to land 28-year-old navigator Alexander Selkirk on a deserted island in the Pacific. He was allowed to take a musket, a pound of powder, a dozen bullets, two pounds of tobacco, an ax, a knife, a kettle and a Bible. Gunpowder, bullets and tobacco ran out quickly. But the Scot Alexander Sel-Kirk managed with the remaining four things to live on the island four years and four months. In February 1709 in the Bay of Islands became British frigate to replenish the supply of fresh water. Selkirk on board and returned to his homeland.

In London, he became very popular. The adventures of a young sailor heard and writer Daniel Defoe. That's Alexander Selkirk entered world literature under the name of Robinson Crusoe.

The next stage — the construction in the immediate vicinity of the accident or disaster temporary shelter from direct sunlight, wind, rain, snow or frost. In an emergency hypothermia or overheating of the body can develop rapidly, threatening growth. And if time does not protect from the effects of unfavorable weather conditions, then after 0.5-1 h have to deal with the elimination of the serious consequences of overheating or overcooling of the body. And it is not only require a lot of energy and precious time, but may lead to irreparable consequences.

This shelter can be constructed from a piece of polyethylene or fabric parachute wreckage of the vehicle, an improvised shelter, etc. But at the same time with the device to start the construction of more capital-seekers to be temporary or — for a few days — or longer, depending how quickly can come help.

Do not engage in minor matters, as long as you are not provided with temporary shelter or capital!

Next on the scene should search and collect all the items that could be useful in an emergency situation, in which you hit. All found to be folded in one place and it is advisable to clean the snow, grass, sand pad (not to trample and losing) and cover from the elements (wind, rain, or snow) or polyethylene cloth (if any), branches or bark of various trees , reeds and the like from unwanted items preferably folded tours in the form of various geometric shapes in open space or just have noticeable from the air and ground location.

Please note all personal belongings and items, even if you think they are not any good, because:

in extreme conditions binoculars, watches, lenses of glasses, camera lenses can be used as a magnifying glass for making fire;

foil from candy, chocolate and packaging of certain products, such as coating the inside of the foil packet from the milk, yogurt and other dairy products, can be used to make the signal mirrors, spoons, cooking small game and fish;

Fishing spoons can also serve as copper coins, keys to the apartment and a car, rings and cufflinks, suspenders made of rubber, volleyball and cycling chambers can make a slingshot to hunt small birds, reptiles and small rodents;

needles are suitable not only for sewing and darning, but also for the production of the compass;

nails, pins, hair clips, earrings, pins can be adjusted as fish hooks;

plastic bags, children's balloons — a beautiful container for carrying and storing water, mining and desalination in the desert and the ocean, sealing and insulation things feet, nylon stockings, pantyhose, fishing line, a thick thread and yarn spun from clothes, cut into thin strips belt — all of which can serve as material for the manufacture of hunting traps and loops, rods, slingshots.

Any little thing, picked up on the site of the accident or tucked in his pockets, in an extreme situation, sooner or later find its use, so do not have to throw away.

All surviving products, even crackers crumbs and seeds in his pockets, gathered in one place and carefully considered. This is known as an emergency supply.

In the early days under normal climatic conditions to abstain from the use of existing products and try to use the gifts of nature. But it depends not only on the climate, but also the time of year and location (high altitude, glacier, desert, devoid of vegetation, open water, etc.). Need to sort out all of the products on the shelf life and the first to use only those that are perishable.

Finally, the next task — at the scene put the distress signals (see Sec. 4 and Appendix 6).

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