One of the most interesting conifers Russia. Height of 25-30 m, trunk diameter of 1.5, sometimes 2.5 m grows slowly, growing to 10-20 cm per year. Live to four thousand years (the duration of the life of tis is the first among our trees and one of the first places among the plants of the world.) Thin crust has a reddish tinge, the old tree peel lengthwise slices. Very old trunks sometimes have deep longitudinal grooves, and in the distance seems to grow together several trunks. Crohn's is very thick, the variability in outline, often with 3-4 nodes.
Tis blooms in spring. Anthers in the form of tiny yellow balls sit along the shoots. Female ovule covered multiple scales, and only with a magnifying glass they can be distinguished from the leaf buds. Flowering begins from 25-30 years with an increase in the open and to 60-100 years in the forest. In mid-summer of the dark green branches of yew seeds can be seen surrounded by a fleshy red goblet prisemyannikami. Dark Seed Prisemyanniki leave open on the upper side, and they have a pleasant sweet taste and sedobny.Tis was once widely distributed throughout the forest zone of Western Europe – from Scandinavia to the Mediterranean. Now his stock has declined significantly. To save this plant, in some countries, even some trees yew declared reserves. Tis best preserved in the Caucasus. In the upper Alazani yew wood is a protected area of 700 hectares, is considered sacred among the local population. There are small areas in the canyons and Khosta Bzyb, in the Caucasian Reserve, Armenia and Azerbaijan. Single trees found throughout the forest zone of the Caucasus at a height of 600-1500 m above sea level. Yew grows well in shady ravines on moist soils containing lime. The most favorable conditions for it – high humidity, temperature uniformity and smooth diffused light with protection from direct sunlight.
Old age keeps pobegoproizvoditelnuyu ability and tolerates a haircut, so it's very rewarding material to create decorative groups, tapeworms and borders, as well as a green sculpture. Needles and twigs contain a poisonous alkaloid that affects the nervous system and cause poisoning (sometimes fatal) in horses, donkeys, mules. Yew needles used folk remedy against heart disease. Small quantities of toxic substances are contained in the wood. They cause dermatitis in woodworkers. Yew wood differs valuable features – resistance to decay, firmness, elasticity and beauty and has been used in shipbuilding, for piles and other underwater structures for water pipes, for furniture, for crafts.
Now use yew limited. Necessary measures to restore and preserve this valuable and beautiful tree.