Before you quench your thirst with water from stagnant or weakly running water, it should be disinfected (decontaminated) and then purified by filtration of insoluble particles and impurities (sand, clay), the decay products of microorganisms, ions used for disinfection.
However, if the disinfection of water will be produced by boiling, then the sequence of the process is changing — first filtering and then decontaminated. The "right" water is colorless, has no taste or smell. Muddy water is a suspension of solid particles of different composition.
Harmful to human health content in water :
— Manganese in large quantities
— Iron generally does not have adverse effects, but the taste and smell of the water is unpleasant glandular as raw, and after boiling.
— Heavy metals (Cadmium, copper, arsenic, mercury, lead) in small doses are harmless, but they accumulate in the body, almost no withdrawal and at high concentrations strongly undermine health. However, usually heavy metals in surface waters do not meet. Unless, of course, do not take water from the waste mining and chemical plant.
— Calcium and magnesium person is not harmful. Their only drawback — the boiling of their salts calcification, which affects the appearance of dishes.
— Sodium-potassium in high concentrations give the water a salty or bitter taste depending on what prevails in the water along with them, chlorides, sulfates or fluorides. But this water is closer to the sea, and it must be desalinated.
— The really dangerous content in water nitrogen compounds, are the product of changes in life or living organisms. Their source may be, for example, rotting seaweed, thrown into the river fertilizers or sewage.
— Bacteria there is in any water, and contrary to popular belief, not all varieties are killed by boiling. Therefore, to avoid getting sick with dysentery or something worse, the water is highly desirable to filter and disinfect the combined method. The most dangerous are coliforms, known as coliform bacteria. If they are present in water, the disease can not be avoided.
Methods of water purification.
- FilteringThe simplest filter is an empty tin can or plastic bottle with two or three small holes punched in the bottom (jam) and two-thirds filled with fine sand in the bottom of the can or the bottle previously laid out a piece of cloth. Water is poured on top, and passing through the thickness of the sand flows out into the hole. For reliability process filtrovki better to repeat many times. If the water is very dirty, the sand should be changed periodically to more chistyy.A if a bank or a plastic bottle filled broken into small pieces with coal taken from the burnt-out fire, you get more tech carbon filter. Clean coal is obtained if the wood to burn in some capacity on high heat. Wood should be hardwood as softwood give filtered water a specific taste and smell.
If there is no "dishes" is not at hand, then as the filter housing can use a cap or hat, sleeve shirts, trousers or rolled bag of cloth hanging on them like a tree branch. To filtered water is not leaking on the fabric, it should be a narrow stream poured into the recess made in the center of the filter.
More complex filters can be made from any of the available fabrics and thick branches 1.5-2 cm for this branch are set tripod on which pieces of fabric attached.
Each filter is loaded with his makeshift filler. For example, grass, sand, charcoal, taken from the burnt-out fire, built of hardwood trees.
Pour water into the filter should be at the center and in small portions, freely flowing through all layers of the water is filtered and clarified. For example, in the pictures below, the dirty water is taken from public sources and filtered through a filter shown above.
In the photos in the left column water — before filtering, in the right — after filtering. Differences clearly visible to the naked eye.
Can be made more simple cloth filter. For example, dig a hole in the ground, put the tank back on top of the branches of the trees to make grid-floor, which put a layer of tissue. In the center of the fabric it is desirable to push to form a bell guide for draining liquid in the container. After that, the fabric nagresti thick layer of sand, sand cover the following piece of cloth on top pour charcoal cloth cover again and again sand. There may be several layers — the more, the better. For more reliable disinfection preferably filtered water to pass through the filter again. It is better not through already used, and a re-done. Finally, the simplest (but this does not mean that the worst) filter — a "ground pump." For its devices do not have anything — no tissues, no coal. Enough to have a pond with a suspicious-looking water and entrenching tools — shovel, knife, or simply a sharpened stick. This instrument from 50 to 100 cm from the pond to dig deep, at least half a meter hole and wait for it to fill with water. The water is then carefully scoop out, wait again pit is full, and then scoop. And so on until the water is clear and transparent. And if you dream, you can think of a dozen other ways to purify water in an emergency. For example, to make the elementary steps of adsorption filter funnel, a piece of cotton or gauze and first aid kit available in tablets of activated charcoal (or birch charcoal). And you can make a simple and compact wearable filter in advance at home. As the body of the filter used plastic box from under the cigar. The bottom of the box made a hole. Case full of (upward) — a layer of cotton wool 2 cm layer of crushed charcoal 8 cm and over 2 cm layer of cotton on top all of the layers are pressed against the plate of permeable porous plastic, similar to that used in industrial water filters.
Activated carbon has a large number of microscopic pores and thus absorbs (adsorbs and absorbs) organic molecules from water and some inorganic substances. He was particularly effective in filtering organic, which gives the water a yellowish color, odor, etc. and for the removal of heavy metals from water. The order of application of such a self-made filter is very simple. Omit the upper end of the sleeve in the water and then through a small hole in the bottom of the suction it to yourself.
For the record — one tablet of activated charcoal can filter about 0.9-1 liters of water purification efficiency to 85-90%, then the performance drops and tablets should be changed. Thus it is possible to calculate the share of such a filter. Please note the following, the old carbon filter does not begin to clear, and pollute the water — the water becomes worse filtovannaya original. This happens because of the sorbent starts washed out before it accumulated dirt. In some cases, you can use two ways to rough water filtration, which removes some of the parasites, but unfortunately this is not the case for most pathogens. 1. Reed stick in the sand bottom and suck up the water, which is filtered through the sediment. 2. Wrap a cloth or reed pipe and lowered it a bit deeper the water, suck up moisture. Regardless of the method used in the mandatory filtering should be boiled after water for 10 minutes. Then let it stand for at least 30 minutes and carefully pour off the water is not clean vzbalamuchivaya sediment.
- Distillation and distilled water.In the southern region alone water filtration is better not to be limited, because it can stay in a variety of various intestinal, liver, and other parasites and viral infections that can cause the most severe disease. In the southern regions, especially South Asian water should be boiled or distilled by steam and steam distiller distillyatorov.Prosteyshy plastic can be made from a metal tube bent at right angles — the knee. Pipe is installed at top two non-combustible supports, such as two-glass bead. Inside the pipe is filled with water. In the fold to make fire. At the ends of the pipe to put on metal pots or jars, lined on the inside with a cloth. The steam from the boiling water is deposited on the cool metal pans, absorbent cloth and dripping when substituted in capacity. The easier you can make a steam distiller from a piece of plastic film, container and several poles. To do this, you should install the tripod poles, hang them from the top container and wrap with plastic wrap. In the top of the "plastic bag", leave an opening for smoke extraction, and tuck into the lower ends of 10-15 cm and lift up slightly upward, to form a kind of pocket-grooves. Now, if a capacity to make a fire and bring the water to a boil, steam will condense on the film and run down, the folded edges formed polyethylene pockets. This desalination plant in quite moody, as a strong fire tries to melt the film, and the weak does not support the required level of boiling. This shortage can be avoided if the fire grow inside lined stone fireplace, installed capacity. Stones will cover fusible tape from excessive heat and direct it up to the bottom of the vessel. And of course, it is better to use as firewood giving less sparks thin wood of deciduous trees. In the worst case, you can cover the container with boiling salt water or contaminated with one or more layers of fabric or clothing, and when it is saturated with steam, pull through a branch or other protects hands from burns devices and squeeze. In this case, it is important that a drop of boiling water did not reach the tissue to which the water in the tank should be filled no more than a third. Lower the tube into the mouth filled with water and a closed vessel, which is put on the fire. Attach the other end of the tube in a sealed receptacle to be placed inside another vessel filled with cold water to cool the steam passing through the tube. You can use any handset. To water vapor does not escape into the atmosphere, seal the joints with mud or wet sand. A simpler method is a variant of the desert still. Bring up from a closed vessel in which to boil polluted or salt water. Place the other end of the tube under the solar still. A piece of sheet metal, bark or leaf of a plant bent down will lay vessel and guide couples in a tube. In winter, desalinate salt water freezing. To do this, fill the jar with water and giving it to freeze up to 2/3, the remainder (brine) is drained. If formed ice remains salty taste, it should melt and freeze again by 2/3. A re-freezing leads to success.