Gray groundhog - marmota baibacina kastsch. Distribution and abundance in Kazakhstan | The survival encyclopedia

Gray groundhog — marmota baibacina kastsch. Distribution and abundance in Kazakhstan

Outside of Kazakhstan in the north lazybones was common in the steppes of Trans-Urals. Currently, he remained there only isolated settlements in the southern part of the Chelyabinsk region — Bredin-Soviet, Kizilskoe, Poltava, and Varmenskom Kuyurgazinskom areas (Schwartz, Peacock, Daniel, 1951). In this Kustanai region animal found in the northern regions — Fedorov, Mendygarin-Soviet and Presnogorkovskaya (Sludsky, 1939 Tkachenko, 1959). In the North-Kazakhstan region it is found in the area Presnovskom (Tkachenko, 1959). Next, the northern boundary of its distribution goes to the lake. Selety-Tentiz (Afanasiev and Belyaev, 1953) and from the east almost to the river. Irtysh. In 150-200 km Pavlodar it turns north to the lake. Zhalauly and falls far south west p. Shiderty. Then from its headwaters marmot populations strongly protrude east to Mt. Murdzhik Bayanaul strip between the mountains and the lake basin. Karasor.

From the latter the southern border area of this groundhog goes west to the outskirts of the village. Krasnaya Polyana and the left bank. Nura (Kapitonov, 1966, our data).

West lazybones found on the north shore of Lake Cour galdzhin and Tengiz, comes to the foothills of the mountains Ulutauskih quite plentiful in the south Tselinograd area, especially along the coast p. Tersakkan. VF and Nikolai Ryabov Belyshev (1963) reported it from the village. Amangeldy south Kustanai region. Then the southern boundary of the area of the steppe marmot passes through the upper river. Ulkayaka and northern spur Mugojar mountains. They are going in the 50-70 km north p. Jilek (Dubrovsky, 1962). In the Ural region marmots found in the village. Serebryakov (Fokanov, 1952).

Within the area lazybones distributed unevenly. It is absent in the strongly protrude south Kokchetav forests, is not found in the desert and steppe regions. So, in 1960, en route from Bayan-Aul to the city Ermak we could not find even the abandoned settlements groundhog. He had not invaded the area, apparently due to discharge of the vegetation there. Ya Ya Polforov (1896) and Ya Slovtsov (1897) noted that at the end of the last century in central Kazakhstan was a lot of marmots. According IV Turkina Satunin and KA (1900), at Irbit Fair from 1881 to 1895 came from 165 to 730 thousand, 382 thousand on average marmot skins annually and to Nizhny Novgorod from 1881 to 1893 g — respectively from 4 to 250 thousand skins. You have to think that most animals produced in Kazakhstan and the surrounding areas, as in the European marmot was in this period strongly extinct in most areas (Ognev, 1947). In Kazakhstan, as a result of excessive fishing has been undermined by its number only to 1930 from 1925 to 1930. here is harvested from 92322 (1930) up to 270 762 (1927), an average 195,712 marmot skins, while in 1931 it was purchased by 16,529 in 1932, 32,630 in 1933 — 31 090 skins of these animals ( Khrushchev, 1935).

In the 20 years of this century the number Baibakov decreased so that VN Belov (1931) in June — July 1928, at a great route for the North Kazakhstan — from Orsk (via Semiozer-tion — Atbasar — Shchuchinskaya) to Petropavlovsk, with a detailed survey around him, saw only uninhabited butanes marmot, and the animals themselves have never seen.

In the early 30's in the steppes of Kazakhstan survived only a few small, highly fragmented populations of marmots (Michel, 1934 Korsakov, 1938). After the prohibition of fishing on this animal in 1926 and 1930. its numbers began to increase. If in 1934 — 1935 years. in Naurzum Reserve found only three inhabited burrows (Korsakov, 1938), by 1942 there was already there were hundreds of residential Surcin and animals began to settle in small habitats peculiar to them (and Krupeniikov Stepanitsky, 1943). According to AA Slud-sky (1939), by the end of the 30s marmot was common, and sometimes quite plentiful already many areas of the steppe zone of Kazakhstan. A significant increase in the number allowed to resume fishing in 1941 in Karaganda, Akmola and Kostanay regions. However, from 1941 to 1958 in Kazakhstan harvested an average of only 18,841, and usually no more than 35-40 thousand skins steppe marmot. Because of lack of intensive fishing its numbers increased. According to the observations of KS Hodashevoy (1953), high population density marmot in 1948 is celebrated in many parts of the Akmola region, namely, between the lake. Koskol and Atbasar between Atbasar and Tselinograd and the lower course of the river. Nura, near the village. Saba and Jambul. In 1954-1955. He was more plentiful in many northern, most populated human areas Kustanai, Kokchetav and south of the North Kazakhstan regions (weaver Co., 1959).

Due to the intense plowing of virgin lands in the northern and central parts of the country in 1953-1954. marmot numbers decreased. He remained mostly only in small communities unplowed grasslands. In 1957-1960 rm. the most significant settlements marmots located south of the railway Kartaly — Tselinograd, West Lake Tengiz Kozhakol an area of about 25 thousand km2 lived approximately 3 million animals, and on 1 km2 — 30-50 families of marmots. West p. Ishim and north stations Yesil, and Tobol Kushmurun reinforced by plowing land in the area of 6-8 thousand km2 was no more than 400 thousand Baibakov, although in some areas — from the lake. Kushmurun to the lake. Aksuat there were 15-20 inhabited burrows on one km2. Finally, to the east of the railway Kokchetav — Karaganda to Lake. Selety-Tengiz, mountains Goyang-dy, Andyl-Ishtytau and Lake. Karasor marmot settlements were located on the territory of about 20 thousand km2. In this area, the high density of bluegrass, polynyas (Artemisia pauciflora, A. Schrenkiana, A. scopaefor-mis), and pyrethrum — Pyrethrum kasachstanicum), mastitis (Li-nosyris tatarica), Bloodroot — Potentilla bifurca and other plants. They graze their families close together, slowly moving around the site, no further 30-40 m from the hole.

With the thick and tall grasses in late May — June skusyvayut animals mostly more tender and succulent parts of the plant — leaves, flowers and shoot tips. Removed from the normal 60 — 70 m and usually far apart from each other.

Trifler at this time is quite picky in feed and prefer to eat a favorite, usually a rare plant: Jurinea multiflora, Serratula nitida, Scorzonera stricta, S. austriaca, Echinops ritro, Eryngium planum, Astragalus macropus, A. buchtarmen-sis. Sisymbrium polymorphum. Ferula caspica, F. tatarica. Polygonum aviculare, Chenopodium sp., Galium verum, Linosyris villosa, Echinop-silon sedoides, Medicago sp. and other grasses.

In the wet 1958 animals fed selectively until hibernation, and in the dry 1957, when the end of May — June plants were very depressed, they eat all the grass, and even found shrubs: tavolozhku (Spiraea hypericifolia), prostrate summer cypress (Kochia pro-strata) etc.

Woodchucks prefer to feed near the shelters, so when poor harvest grass vegetation on 20-25 m around butanes is eating away almost to the soil.

In the south of Kustanai region groundhogs ate: Stipa Lessingiana, koeleria, fescue, bluegrass, tulip Schrenk, prostrate summer cypress, Anabasis salsa, Petrosimonia Litwinovi, cinquefoil, Medicago falcata. Ferula tatarica, Veronica spicata, Galatella tatarica, G. divaricata, Pyrethrum achille-folium, Artemisiamaritima, A. incana, A. austriaca, A. pauciflora, Jurinea multiflora, Palimbia turgaica (Krupennikov and Stepanitsky, 1943 Zimin, 1953).

According to AA Tkachenko (1961), in northern Kazakhstan greatest importance in the diet are grains Baibakov (bluegrass, fescue grasses), legumes (alfalfa, clover, astragalus), Compositae (wormwood, yarrow), umbrella (yellow card Russian, smolonosnitsa ) lebedovye (prostrate kochia) and Labiatae (sage steppe, zopnik tuber). Less commonly eaten: plantains, cinquefoil, horse sorrel, derbeynik, rye, white quinoa, chicken, yurineya, noctule.

In cultivated fields marmots eat wild cabbage and radishes, yellow sow thistle, cocklebur and other plants (Tkachenko, 1961).

V. Kapitonov (1962) noted that the crops lazybones skusyvaet young leaves of low plants: weed, mulgediuma, Thistle, Mari, bittercress and radishes. In the absence of weeds in the fields of animals are fed almost exclusively wheat (Ismagilov and Kydyrbaev, 1963). However, marmots, as our observations, eat wheat only if there are holes in crops, which is rare. More often they are asylum on the outskirts of cultivated land, and they feed on the virgin snow.

Sometimes the animals are forced to eat the food and alien to them. Thus, in early May 1957 at p. Ladyzhenka (Central Kazakhstan) in the feces Baibakov collected on abandoned arable lands with very poor vegetation, we find the roots of plants, seeds and stalks of last year's wheat and insects.

Specify AA Tkachenko (1961) on a large number of marmots eating tulip bulbs, in our opinion, is erroneous. In places where there is no ground squirrels and gerbils, we did not find in the settlements marmot kopalok demonstrating procuring them underground plant parts. The same report RP Zimin (1953) and V. Kapitonov (1962).

Surchata before the first departure from the normal 30-35 days feeding milk. It is probably very nutritious. Indirectly, this is indicated by a very low weight of mammary glands in lactating females. Fabric mammary glands is not entirely across the nipple line, and isolated islands around each nipple. The maximum weight of islet tissue cancer around one nipple does not exceed 3.4-3.5 Mr.

Herbal weight in the stomachs of surchat occurs in the first days after their release from holes. However, caught in 10-15 days after this period, they survived in captivity only if they are but grass, gave milk. Perhaps they are fed milk for at least a half to two weeks to start eating green forage. After three to four weeks after leaving the normal list of palatable food is not very different from that of adult animals.

In the first days after the surchat from holes in their stomachs is very little grass, but gradually the amount it increases, and in two-three months of fish weight of the contents of the gastrointestinal tract is 700-750 g (38-40% of body weight). We lived surchata weighing 1.2-1.3 kg July Eat at 700-900 g clover, milkweed, pigweed and other succulent plants. In adults in the digestive tract of food was no more than 32-35% of the weight of the body, or to the 1570-1600 Mr. The weight of food in the stomach reached 600 Mr. Specify AA Tkachenko (1961) that was a marmot in the stomach in 1356 g food mass is very doubtful.

Marmot fat at least in April, and the maximum — in July — August (Tkachenko, 1961). According to our observations, in the spring immediately after surfacing Baibakov, they have a lot of fat. In 1957, it averaged 15.5% of body weight in males and 18.4% females. Maximum in one individual was up to 580 g cavity and up to 140 g subcutaneous fat. For some females were fat to 22.3% of body weight. In late April — early May due to poor feeding conditions fatness marmots decreased sharply, especially in cold weather and heavy rainfall observed in the spring of 1958

Fatness marmots differs from year to year. In 1957, in June of adult males and barren females had more fat than in 1958. Later fatness they barely increased, though they lie dormant started only at the end of August. The delay in the timing of occurrence, probably caused by slow accumulation of fat feeds the female. They are even in June had a two to three times less fat than males and barren females.

At the end of June and in July 1957 in response to the severe drought was very little food. The accumulation of fat in marmots was slow and they lay down to sleep much later than next year. In 1958, when the first half of the summer has dropped a lot of rain and food were in abundance, adult marmots (including and lactating females) quickly gained the required amount of fat and lay down to sleep early (Shubin, 1962).

Young animals than in adults is always less fatness, but particularly low in fat they had in 1958, they had with their parents early to lie down to sleep. Thus, in their fatness malokormnoe summer before hibernation was higher than ample fodder 1958

Adult Baibakov before bedding fat on average 26% to 34% of body weight, or to 1.6-1.7 kg. Fat before hibernation is usually 50-55%, the rest — the luminal. Subcutaneous fat appeared in 10-15 days earlier cavity.

During hibernation, spent mostly subcutaneous fat, and the luminal as a refractory, — wake up in the spring fodder shortage.

Young surchata in 1957 at the time of occurrence was more than average, than in 1958, but in the spring when you exit holes were severely malnourished, and some hardly moved. Perhaps even more exhaustion, and, perhaps, the death of individuals, took place in 1959, as in 1958 baybachata gone to sleep even less well-fed.

Spring marmots occasionally eat snow, but more often capture it with a cloth. Sometimes they drink from puddles. Later, they are deprived of water and live off the moisture plants skusyvaya most succulent parts. Along with this, in burning the grass, the marmot, perhaps produced by splitting water fat. Apparently, during the dry steppe marmots subsurface drinking water in deep holes. In any case, made them out to dry on the surface of lumps of earth everywhere during the summer is very wet.

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