The article warns that poisonous plants can cause many fatalities. But the warning is not the main goal, the main thing is that many of these plants are subjected to persecution and extermination.
Cultivation of nightshade, Spring Adonis, belladonna, valerian, dogbane and other medicinal plants justified in practice and is one of the ways to save them from destruction. If the benefits of medicinal plants is obvious, it is much harder to convince that need to protect the flora and poisons that are not drugs and, at first glance, nothing but harm, do not bring. However, myths, legends suggest that poisonous plants dedicated to the gods. Ancient people, for example, was thought to have an excellent means of biological control of agricultural vreditelyami.Stoit just try to penetrate the secrets of these plants, their history, to understand the effects of their substance, to meet the biological characteristics and attitudes towards them changed. It becomes obvious thing: all life, be it small or large tree fungus one of a kind work of nature. In the old days were recalled poisonous and inedible plants better and earlier than edible, or those who gave fibers, dyes, spices, incense, wood for craft projects. Hunger drove try the unknown, and in connection with this case, a lot of tragedies. Long remember the primitive people seductive fruit shrubs wolf bark, which tasted a man uttering spirit. Us and it is difficult to believe that the charming azure periwinkle, or soft pink flower crocus, can kill. Even our beloved potato contains poisonous glycoalkaloid solanine, which is quickly destroyed when cooked. When people are first introduced to the poisonous plants, they have learned to use them for evil. In the history of all times and peoples poisoning is considered particularly serious crimes. Involuntarily the feelings of disgust and horror at the sight of suffering poisoned were extended to all beings capable of causing similar, including the poisonous plants.
Among the great diversity of plants inhabit the Earth, there are about 10,000 species of venomous. Many of them, seeing at least once, you can then find out in appearance or an unpleasant odor.
Going hiking on the Crimean mountains, to avoid problems, it is useful to get acquainted with the most dangerous plants found in the region.
A perennial herb of the buttercup family. Grows in meadows, scrublands, forest glades in the valleys of mountain rivers. In Ukraine grows several types of aconite – all of them are poisonous. The most common are bushy, sherstistoustovy, antidotal species. In sherstoustovogo aconite flowers blue. In Aconite contains a large number of alkaloids, including the most poisonous – aconitine. Most of the poison in the root of the plant to root. Poisoning usually occurs when using decoctions infusions plants to self-medication. Immediately after receipt of the poison in the body the patient has a feeling of numbness in the language, then the face and body.
Colchicum – plant messed up time.
Usually grows on forest edges along the southern slopes of the mountain, at an altitude of 1800-3000 meters. In autumn, when its flowers appear, solid pink carpet covered the ground, meadows produce a fabulous experience. Colchicum (all types) were included in the "Red Book" as plants that are threatened by the complete destruction. Is a perennial bulbous plants, they have a large onion (from the excellent – up to 4 inches in diameter). In the summer they are completely invisible. Only underground sit their bulbs, outside covered with light brown scales. At the end of August or in September, up from the ground on a thin stem, without leaves, they appear beautiful pink or light purple flowers with six petals. Interestingly, the ovary of the flower is hidden in the bulb in the ground. A very long column pestle goes to her through the stalk. After fertilization, the flowers fade, and the plant is again hidden under the ground until spring. Large leaves appear in spring, and with them at first green, like a bud, then brown-celled ovary – a fruit-box. Further development of the plant is very fast and ends with the beginning of summer: the seeds get enough sleep, the leaves turn yellow and wither. In Crimea common crocus shadow. It differs lilac or pale purple flower color. In crocus contains alkaloid. Spring plant sometimes eat cows. Poison it is excreted in the milk, which can cause poisoning of people, especially children.
Fraxinella golostolbikovy (Burning Bush).
Over forests, fields and meadows are spread all kinds of smells. This – volatile essential oils of plants and thousands of other substances. Essential oils – volatile substances contained in the flowers, leaves, fruit.
Unusually rich in essential oils from plant seeds. Rutaceae. Its leaves resemble ash leaves, flowers are like flowers chestnut enlarged. Burns on the skin may occur in close proximity to the plant. On windless days, essential oils, surrounding the plant can burn, they burn almost instantly, and the fraxinella remains intact, -, hence the other name of this plant – the burning bush.
Perennial herb. Grows in the southern regions of Ukraine in light forest of shrubs Stem 40-80 cm flowers are pale pink and lilac, irregular, with five unequal in size and shape petals with purple-violet veins collected in erect racemose-paniculate inflorescence, very fragrant with the smell of orange peel fruit – capsule. As a consequence of contact with the plant occurs burn. But he did not appear at once: a 2-W of the day is marked itching, burning, redness of the skin. Sometimes this inflammation and limited. In cases of severe skin lesions occur blisters filled with fluid, surrounded by a bright red halo. Bubbles especially for large burns, accompanied by malaise, headache, fever. Skin lesions caused yasentsom resemble thermal and chemical burns. They heal very slowly and remain in place burn spots.
Perennial plant of the buttercup family. Grows widely in the Crimea as thickets, Entangling bushes, trees and fences. Occasionally occurs in Transcarpathia. Ribbed woody vine clematis is a length of 10 m and more. The leaves are pinnate, unpaired, on long petioles. Flowers are white, small, furry, are collected in corymbose inflorescence. It flowers in May and June.
In clematis contains substances that are similar in their effect on the body with toxic substances toxic buttercups. The largest number of these (0.55%) is contained in the plant during its flowering and fruiting. Prolonged contact of the skin with the fresh plant may develop inflammation of her.
Much to my surprise beech also applies to poisonous plants. Beech forest trees form a pure or mixed with other types of forests in the mountainous Crimea. In the mountain forests of beech grows eastern Crimea and the Crimean. The trees are large, with smooth gray trunks. The leaves are alternate, ovate, upper side glossy, dark green, with the bottom – white-pubescent. The plant is dioecious. Fruit (ribbed, triangular nut) is enclosed in the shank.
Tree begins to flower and bear fruit with forty-fifty years of age. Life expectancy beech – 500 years. In kernels beech contains up to 40% of oil is not inferior in quality olive, as well as proteins, starches, sugars, organic acids. Poisoning can occur by eating raw nuts, the toxicity is due to the alkaloid faginom. At the same time, general weakness, drowsiness, a blackout, a headache. As a result of calcination nuts fagin destroyed. Roasted nuts beech harmless and very tasty. But do not get carried away by this, as beech nuts to taste can not compare with the taste of hazelnut.
Shrub or small tree of the cypress family. It grows in the undergrowth of pine or mixed forests, sometimes forming separate trees. Evergreen plant up to 5 m needle leaves, 4-20 mm long, spiky, heavily defended, are whorls. Fruits – bluish black berry-like cones, composed of 3-6 fruit flakes, which are made as maturing maslyanistymimi. Maturation is completed in the second year after flowering. There are also other types of juniper red, giving red fruits, Cossack – with needle leaves 2-3 mm long and fragrant dark purple fruits. In Crimea there relict grove mozhzhevelkika, high to individual instances of 10-15 m in height, trunk diameter of more than 1 m The leaves of this species are small juniper, needle, pressed to the shoots. Fruits are round and black with a bluish tinge. But we'll talk about next time. In folk medicine used Juniper, has a pleasant sweet and spicy taste. However, improper use of them for medical reasons, as well as eating can lead to serious disease. So, 50 Juniper ingestion can cause fatal poisoning. Toxic effect of juniper due to its high content of fruit essential oil, terpenes, formic and acetic acids.
Herbaceous perennial plant of the family Araceae. Growing among bushes and rocks. In the flood plains in the south-west of the Crimea. Leaves broadly lanceolate, elongated. The smell of the plants strong, unpleasant. Blooms in April and May. Prolonged stay in a quiet calm weather around flowering plants leads to headaches, nausea. In Ukraine, there are other types of Arum: oblong, Besser, spotty.
In leaves, tubers and berries contain a number of alkaloids and glycosides, which lose their toxic properties upon drying and heat treatment plant.
The tree is so legendary, what people should be very long story, some of its properties, I will now. All parts of the plant, except for the red pulp prisemyannika fruit contains potent alkaloids. When pruning shrubs yew in workers a headache due to the inhalation of volatile substances. Severe poisoning can occur as a result of eating yew berries with seeds. So do not be arranged parking near yew trees and certainly not in any case is not the fruit of yew.
One, two and a perennial herb of the family umbrella. It grows on the southern slopes of scree of the main ridge of the Crimean mountains. It has a ribbed, branched stems over 1 m tall. The flowers are white, gathered in multibeam umbellate inflorescences umbrella diameter is 50 cm Flowers in June – July. Plants smell unpleasant. Fruits are oval, flat, with a wide border.
In the mountainous Crimea growing parsnip ligustikolistny. In the plant contains essential oil, which causes severe irritation of the skin and mucous membranes. There are different opinions about the poisonous hogweed. This is explained by the fact that in clear weather volatile essential oil. Irritation and inflammation of the skin is observed with prolonged contact with hogweed in cloudy weather. Once on the upper plateau Chatyrdaga I personally experienced the effects of this plant.