One of the most important and complex problems of modern medicine is the problem of cancer. Emerged and has developed considerably new discipline — oncology. One of the founders of our country, it was the NN Petrov (1876-1964). In 1910, he published the first monograph in Russian about the pathology and clinical tumors. In 1926, at the initiative of NN Petrov was created in Leningrad Cancer Institute, which played an important role in the anti-cancer in the USSR. NN Petrov and his school oncologists widely used experimental method in the study of comparative pathology of tumors of animals and man. In the 20 years of the NN Petrov and NA Krotkin revealed the role of mechanical factors in the carcinogenic ne5e and proved the possibility of malignant metastatic tumors by embryonic grafts. Since 1939, NN Petrov and his colleagues have been implemented with positive results first in Europe (after the experiments A. Roff in Argentina) experiments on the carcinogenic effects of sunlight. For the first time under the direction of N. Petrova methodology was developed and produced by experiments on monkeys and traces dynamics radiographically perceptible changes that characterize the emergence and growth of malignant tumors in the bones under the influence of the introduction of the bone marrow of radioactive substances.
Soviet histologist G. Roskin in the 20s implemented heterogeneous vaccination provided blockade of the reticuloendothelial system. Only in the 40's these shots were the basis of a number of works in the U.S.. Krichevsky AM and 3. I. Sinelnikov created in 1926 Strain sarcoma in rats by grafting human malignant melanoblastoma. Japanese scholar K. Yamagiwa and K. Ichikawa for the first time in the world in 1914-1916,. managed to call cancer the skin of experimental animals as a result of its long-term lubrication with coal tar. IM Michalowski in 1926 for the first time in the world to prove the possibility of formation of cancer under the influence of inorganic substances. LM Shabad in 1937 showed the presence of substances in the body opuholeobrazuyuschih patient. In his own laboratory in 1946 and obtained evidence of antigenic character of the "milk factor", creating "hereditary" cancers in mice some clean lines, and for the first time, the possibility of breast cancer in mice under the influence of insect bites, blood-feeding cancerous individuals. To win international recognition of LM Shabad devoted to the study of carcinogenic agents in the human environment and the prevention of cancer by removing these harmful effects.
Viral theory of cancer was proposed in 1903 by French scientist A. Borrell. In 1911, F. Rouse (USA) opened the chicken sarcoma virus. Later it was established the viral nature of a number of animal tumors, including breast cancer in mice, rats and mice, leukemia, etc. In 1945, the LA Zilber virusogeneticheskuyu put forward the theory that the tumor virus acts as an agent of transformation, genetically modifying cells. Successful research into the viral theory of cancer conducted in the postwar years, a prominent Soviet and pathophysiology of AD Timofeyevsky oncologist. He developed a method that allowed for the first time in the USSR get long-lasting culture of many human tumors. In the study of histogenesis and cytology of several tumor important was the successful application of the method of explantation of tumors in tissue culture (NG Khlopin, AD Timofeyevsky etc.). MF Glazunov created the original classification of human tumors. VG Garshin establish the biological significance of atypical epithelial inflammatory growths in the occurrence of tumors. Research by Soviet biochemists BI Zbarsky, SR Mardasheva, Orekhovich and others have shown that the basis of tumor growth is a perversion of the biosynthesis of proteins and nucleic acids. Important role in improving the early diagnosis of malignant tumors of the respiratory played tomography method — layered X-ray light (A. Bocage, 1921, France, A. Vallebona, 1930, Italy, EL Kevesh, USSR). Diagnosis of tumors of different locations contributed cytological methods, and methods of surgical and biopsy.
Operative treatment of malignant tumors involved many surgeons. Universal recognition was made by NN Petrov principles tumor removal without exposure of the surface and without violating the integrity of their matter. Major successes achieved in the surgical treatment of malignant tumors, PA Gertsen, A. Savina, VI Kazansky, S. Yudin, VN Shamov, FG Points, PA Kupriyanov A. Sawicki and J. Duquesne, R. Masson (France), F. Sauerbruch (Germany), etc.
In radiation therapy of malignant tumors in the 20-s made a significant contribution Nemenov offered the original theory of the biological action of X-rays on the cell. In recent decades, improved health outcomes contributed to the use of powerful machines for deep X-ray therapy teleradievyh especially gamma-devices, betatron, linear accelerators, and radioactive isotopes. Wide acceptance as the most effective get a combined (surgery and radiotherapy) treatment of tumors.
In the 40s there were the first data about the possibilities of success of some hormone human tumors (cancer breast and prostate), and after that have been proposed and chemotherapeutic agents. When tumor diseases of the hematopoietic system (lymphoma and chronic leukemia) have been used in the U.S. embihin developed in the Soviet Union — novoembihin, etc. In a number of tumors was effective Sarcolysin produced in the USSR L. Larionov in 1953 noruratsil studied in the experiment and clinic Heydelbergerom (USA), etc. In recent years, there have been new anticancer drugs Soviet-dopa, omain etc.

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