Passage of a group of a particular route is not the goal. It is important not only to climb the route, but also get pleasure from it. The team leader should constantly monitor the well-being of children, time to stop the group on a halt to rest, to help children to organize accommodation for the full restoration of power. This is one of the components of the safety of the route.
The first rest after a morning out on the route it is advisable to do in 10-15 minutes after the start of the movement. This so-called technological halt. The fact is that in the morning is quite cool and tourists dress warmly. After some time, the motion of the body is warmed with a backpack, it becomes hot. Necessary to remove excess clothing and put it away in a backpack.
Moreover, for those first few minutes of motion detected, usually costs styling backpack or trouble with shoes. They should be immediately addressed.
In the future, make halts as needed after 35 — 45 minutes of motion. This will depend primarily on the physical condition of the group. It is not necessary to bring the weakest participants march to exhaustion. It should be remembered that the child is not always himself admits that he was very tired. This should be the next leader. While driving in the mountains or hills halts do more often than in the plains.
Halts to choose convenient locations sheltered from the wind and the scorching sun as possible in fallen trees, so you can sit down. At rest should not allow children to frolic. Halt — this time the rest! Duration of rest stops — 10 — 15 minutes.
Place for lunch halt chosen more carefully. This requires the presence near the selected point of water, firewood. Selecting a location halt (if it is not defined in advance the head) should be started immediately, as soon as the latter moved to before dinner shift. It's okay if it's a place just 15 minutes from the start of movement, because not known how long it will be the next convenient place to organize a lunch halt! If you are not sure what lies ahead will be water, you can type it in the way and make a halt in a convenient location.
More carefully chosen place for the night (bivouac). Stand up for the night to a group of 1.5 -2 hours before dark. Otherwise, cooking dinner, putting up tents will be made in the light of lanterns. Selecting a location for the camp, as well as for lunch halt, starts on the last step.
Accommodations must meet:
Life Support — the presence of a camp near the water, sufficient firewood;
Security — from population centers, the location of a camp on high, nepodtoplyaemyh riverbanks, in the absence of a camp dry and rotten trees that can fall in a strong wind;
comfort — a beautiful view, light morning sun, air flow through (save for mosquitoes and midges).
It should make it a rule one simple rule: the more organized, faster performs all work on improvement of the bivouac, the longer it stays on the rest. Therefore, we need to clearly plan the organization of work of all members of the group to a camp.
After determining the place of bivouac group stops. Given 5-10 minutes to rest. After this duty at the kitchen pass kana, campfire and cooking utensils needed for dinner foods. Determine the duty campfire away from the places specified for tents, gather twigs, make a fire, bring water and begin to cook dinner.
All other members of the group, including girls, collect firewood. They need a lot — for cooking dinner and breakfast. After that, the team leader and commander of the number of children
Choose a place for tents. In case of inclement weather, the approach of rain can be divided into two groups, and at the same time try to rapidly collect firewood and to have time to put up tents on dry land.
Camping — is simple enough, but responsible. After all, the quality of its settings depend sound sleep and rest before the following moves in the afternoon. Well put a tent and not get wet during prolonged rain. Before installing it is necessary first of all that the chosen place of knots, bumps, rocks, try leveled pit. Tent can be set to stand or stretch between trees (fig. 24). The second option is preferable. On the central stretch can throw a tent so that it extends above the tent at 50 — 60 cm on both sides, forming a vestibule, and closed end portion of the driving rain. In that case, you can change the tent and put on one's shoes, leave shoes and backpacks for the night.
How to install a tent next. Initially spread a piece of plastic film under the tent floor. After that stretch diagonally tent floor studs and attach it to the ground. Then put a rack ridge tent and pull the central stretch. The last operation — the tension side roof extensions. In the direction they should be a continuation of the diagonals of the roof slopes. With the right choice of the direction of stretch marks roof slopes will not be wrinkled.
When the tent is set, it is necessary, without waiting for the darkness, lay a rug on him to put a sleeping bag, make clothes for sleeping. The remaining soft things can be used as a pillow, something can be underneath your lower back (in the off season, when the nights are cold.) Small things can be put into the end part of the tent behind the head or along a side tent. Under the rug, in the legs can spread out the empty bag. After this training will not rebound when too much fuss, fruitless search of useful things.
Tent — a place of rest. It should be clean and comfortable. Not worth it without the need to open, it can be excluded from entering the tent of mosquitoes and black flies. To protect the tent from insects can also sew a gauze canopy over the entrance to the tent. Mosquito flown at night can drive smoke from smoldering cones placed in the burned tin. Can be used for this purpose and special tablets from mosquitoes, slightly warmed in the bank.
Self-respecting tourist will not go down in a tent in the outdoor clothing and be sure to remove shoes. You can not allow your children to meditate in a tent fuss. The result of such entertainment can be bruised and torn banners, and even torn tent.
At a time when all set up the tents, cook dinner duty, alternately excommunicated to their tents for folding things and prepare for sleep.
A few more of the attendants. They fall a big load, but with good organization and knowledge of the affairs of any young traveler can handle the responsibilities attendant. Better watch set from breakfast to dinner or supper to dinner — to choose a team leader. After dinner duty calmly washing dishes (individual and group) and rent it to the new duty.
Personal crockery members can wash themselves. Which is better? If each member of the group washes her dishes that require a lot of hot water. If you do it on duty, the savings there, and the time they will take less. But it will be a guarantee that the dishes washed with hot water, all leftover food collected in one place, or in a fire. Which option to choose — to decide the team leader.
New duty, in turn, check the purity of donated dishes, prepared foods for breakfast, prepare for the morning of the kindling for the fire wood. Firewood for the night should cover with foil, and even better to put the kindling under the tent to tent or tent. The attendants usually get up before the entire group, so the wood should be chopped in the evening. Otherwise morning sleep group is broken crash of breaking branches or the sound of axes.
In the case of early retirement option is applicable to the route at the same time lifting the duty and the rest of the group.
So far removed tents, backpacking, the attendants will have time to make breakfast. This saves you time to pack and prepare to leave.
Before the group left the place to stay, and halt any need to put in order the clearing on which the group was resting. All you need to burn off, non-combustible rubbish should bury, cover fire, cover the place fireplaces turf. Wood residues can be folded in a pile under the tree, they still will be useful to other travelers. After the departure of tourists clearing should be cleaner than before they came. This is one of the commandments of the tourists.
In planning the camp (Fig. 25) usually try to have a tent on the windward side of the fire. However, the wind often changes direction, especially in a forest clearing, and all the efforts go down the drain. The main thing that stalls at a safe distance from the fire and they did not get a spark. This distance will depend on the wind speed, but it should not be less than Hume.
In addition to sites for tents and fire places are determined for taking water and washing. The second is to be downstream of the stream, river or away, away, on a pond, a lake. At the opposite side of the camp sites are defined toilets for boys and girls. You can dig a hole for food waste, and you can all burn in the fire. Cans immediately after the liberation of the contents thrown into the fire. Burned bank (it runs off tin, tin-rust preservative) crushed with an ax and buried or hidden under a rock, roots. This bank will rot in a year. Unfired bank will lay 5 — 7 years.
It is unlikely that even a one-day expedition team will do without a fire. Children ask permission to dilute it if only to admire the flames. Indeed, the fire has a magnetic effect. But first of all it is necessary as a heat source, without which no cooking, no warm up, do not dry the clothes.
Fireplace can be a useful means of training and education of children. It is important to teach children how to use a fire so that it was safe for all others and for wood to it you can quickly cook food, dry clothes, sit together and take stock of the day, following the closure of a camp to place the fire did not differ from the surrounding area.
Initially determined by a fire pit. Selected clearing, protected from strong winds. The first is to see if there was near an old fire place, which you can use. When making a fire in the meadow, the fringe, on the grass in the forest should first remove the sod, carefully put it aside, and after the fire is extinguished, the sod back in place. If the soil is damp, we first put a few branches of average thickness, and only on their kindling.
Should take care of fire safety. Clear the proposed location for a fire of dry grass and leaves. To be safe, you can impose a fire stones. But be careful, some of the stones at high heat with a bang burst and can cause injury. You can not make a fire near the dead trees. Pity the living trees and, after having a fire close to the tree, you will burn much of its roots. Earth under fire strongly heated.
In the winter, if the snow is not deep, and rake it to make a fire on the ground. In deep snow can make flooring from raw logs, poles, and on it to make a fire, or a fire under the snow will melt, and it will fall down to the ground.
Experienced travelers skiers use in such cases campfire grid (see 1.2). Bonfire divorce on the grid and off well, as the bottom forms a good airflow. Wood consumption in this small, and nature does not suffer. This way of using the bonfire of the tourists in the summer.
Campfire ensure combustion requires three things: a heat source (matches, lighter), fuel and air. If not at least one of the factors that the fire did not ignite or it goes out (Scheme 1).
As fuel in field conditions have fueled a small-sized flame of a match or a lighter, you must have the kindling — any material that can catch fire easily and quickly. To do this, use small dry twigs, dry grass, birch bark. Best kindling — thin dry twigs that you will see on the bottom
of young fir tree trunk or at the ends of the lower branches of dried mature spruce. No wonder tourists call these branches gunpowder. They ignite dry instantly and are even a small rain. If not thin twigs, you can prepare the kindling of thick branches, making them a knife incision (Fig. 26).
After preparing the kindling ready and branches thicker. For as soon as flare fired up, it is necessary to enclose branches thicker and thicker, and then lay thick logs.
More difficult to start a fire in bad weather, when there is rain or snow. Try something covered kindling. Useful in these cases, and various combustible synthetic materials — acrylic, paper, and rubber.
Bonfires can be divided into three types: the fiery, flame and smoke.
Flaming fires used for cooking, lighting a camp, flame — for cooking, heating, drying things. Both can become smoke, if they throw in the green grass or fresh branches. Chimney fires used to deter mosquitoes, midges and to signal distress.
Flame-fires is much safer than the flame, so the flame is low.
The simplest type of flaming fire shed. Wood placed over a fire is lit in a circle so that they touch the top. With this construction, the flame turns narrow and powerful. On such a fire can quickly boil water (Fig. 27a).
If you need to hang over the fire two or three buckets or pot, then use a fire flame, which flame wider and lower — is well, or grid, the most convenient and economical type of fire (Fig. 27b).
Firewood to burn well, they need oxygen. Therefore, do not place the wood next to each other. If not tightly stacked wood burns poorly, it should blow up, waving "sidushku" (the second of its application). In this case, the air flow must be directed not at the flames, and under the base of the fire.
Flame-fires usually burn for a long time and give a lot of heat. For them, the use of large logs and kindling for — dry branches. Among them is said to be a star like fires (Fig. 27c), taiga (Fig. 27, d) and nodya (Fig. 27, d), for starting the nodi to log faster inflamed, they should be wormed with an ax.
Firewood at first is simple enough. But newcomers often fall into the trap, and even harmful to the forest, breaking the green spaces. In areas with frequent visits to people, of course, more difficult to recruit a sufficient amount of wood, but there was a lot of dead wood. Dry brush wood, suitable for the fire, can be distinguished from the wet and rotten by the typical cod when his break. Can be mangled lower dead branches of conifers. Only in the absence of such options or to procure a large amount of wood should be cut down dead wood — standing dead trees standing. Summer dry tree can be easily distinguished from the living. It does not have leaves, pine needles, bark at zatese ax easily separated. Should not be cut too thick dry trees. This is dangerous and impractical. Thick trunk is difficult to cut, and then chop, and a lot of wood will remain unused.
We have already dealt with the careful handling of an ax and a saw to carry. Just be careful to use them at work. Do not allow children to pererubali ax thick branches, tree trunks. For this is a saw. Work with the ax it is necessary in the shoes and pants. Pererubat branches have obliquely (Fig. 28), putting them on a block of wood, a thick branch to another (but not on the ground or stone). When cleaning the barrel from the branches cutters should be on the opposite side of the trunk (Fig. 29). It is necessary to exclude presence of foreign children in cutting and chopping wood. When working with a chainsaw you should pay attention to the position of the hands holding the timber (they do not need to be close to the place of cut) to consolidate the sawn timber in a stable position.
Should not be left running with an ax and a saw children without adults' attention, which should also constantly monitor the serviceability tools. The slightest failure (cracks in the ax, chopped off, slide the ax with ax) must, without waiting for trouble, make the repair. Keep saws and axes duty must in a case, in places where they can not be accidentally injured (eg by wood).
The work of the fire requires attention and discipline. Trauma and burns occur either as a result of negligence on duty, or the fault of the guys happened to be in the kitchen. It should always be at
refrain rules — in the kitchen, by the fire are only on duty, they're rightful owners. In any weather, even in the heat, on duty at a fire to be in the shoes, pants and a shirt with long sleeves. Long hair should be cleaned under the hats, scarves. Correct fire, take kana hot water should only canvas gloves. Kana put the hot water, the food should be in places that are inaccessible to others, aside from the fire.
When organizing a camp in the treeless area in the mountains of difficulties arise when installing tents. If you install a tent type house on extensions, instead of pegs can use stones, slightly modernized stretch, make them in the form of a ring (Fig. 30).
In the mountains, winds are frequent, so the kitchen equipment need windproof wall, built of stones. There are also problems with the wood. If the preparation of the campaign is planning several nights in the treeless mountains, you have to take with stoves, fuel reserve. Now on sale are gas stoves. Far exceed domestic gasoline as the simplicity of use, and quality of work, ease of transportation fuel (light replacement gas cartridges). Rules for the Treatment Primus children must learn to enter the route and work with them only under adult supervision.
In the case of the one or two nights above the area of the forest can get firewood for dinner and breakfast and bring them to their bivouac.
Multi-day ski trips with first tourists generally carried out by organizing accommodations in rooms (mainly in rural schools, situated in the classroom or the gym). To do this, of course, pre-coordinate this issue with the heads of agencies. For organizing nights must have pieces of plastic film, which trail on the floor under the carpet. Cooking can cause some difficulties. Well, if allowed to use the school canteen, and if not, it's hard in the school yard to make a fire. Better to have a couple of boilers and stoves. This combination allows you to save petrol (gas) and quickly boiling water for cooking, first and second courses.
In organizing these nights should pay attention to children's maintenance of order and cleanliness of the premises, to make sure the morning, before going out on the route, cleaning.
If it is possible, and the weather permits, you can during the campaign to organize swimming children. If high physical loads it is a must.
Previously head determines the place suitable for bathing children, exploring the bottom of the selected location. Then you can give permission for swimming. Children should not be allowed as diving from the shore and in the water, fuss, loud cries. The manager or his deputy must observe the procedure from the shore.
You can do so: the group is divided in half — odd and even. Each child, therefore, has a different sub-partner. While the first subgroup is bathed, the other controls it. Rest assured, with such control over their children watch mates and not allow them to swim more than the time and discipline to break.