Parakeet, or marmot – marmota caudal and jacquemont. Moult

Information on this Groundhog molt based on watching 32 of his skin with the Kyrgyz and Talas Range and 88 from other parts of the range. This marmot molts once a year. Molt, including changing horny layer of the epidermis and hair, begins about three weeks after the release of animals from hibernation and ends two weeks before the occurrence of it. In the lower zone habitat (1800 – 2300 m above sea level. m), it takes about three months polovinoychetyreh, and in the upper zone (2800-3300 m above sea level. m) of the week and a half or two more passes. Judging by the small number of skins in the lower zone it starts around the end of the first – the beginning of the end of April and ends in late July – early August, at the top – about four weeks later, that corresponds to the period of delay of flowering plants at these altitudes. In the lower zone of the northern slope of the Kyrgyz Alatau molt completed by July 20-25 (Kuznetsov, 1948).

When molting first exfoliate the stratum corneum of the epidermis separate scales of 2-5 mm diameter gradually decreases with hair. The falling away of them starts with the head and moving towards the tail, consistently covering the sides and belly. Desquamation of the epidermis lasts about three weeks, followed by a heavy loss of hair, sometimes separated beams simultaneously with whole pieces of stratum corneum of the epidermis area to 4-6 cm2 (Kapitonov, 1964). Old hair cover by this time gradually becomes dull, rough, light red or yellow, black areas become brown hair, and the ends of the mass break off and split. Old hair falls long before regrowth of new and marmot significant amount of time to cover only new low hairline. Changing the hair starts from the back of the body, sometimes with the middle of the back, quickly spread to the head and the tail is much slower and thighs. Gradually she ohvatyvaetboka, belly, front legs and ends at the throat. Priority regrowth of new hair is the same as the loss of old ones.

Adult males, semi-mature specimens and barren females molt once, even though the latter because of the greater intensity of shedding its end of part one. The females giving birth in etomgodu, change the stratum corneum of the epidermis begins simultaneously with that of the other animals, but the period of lactation slows and resumes at the same time with the change of hair, about a month later, after their babies come out of the holes and will eat plants. Molt in these females is the most intense, so it is re-expressed worse than other individuals, and it ends a little later than in males, although the start almost a month later.

In long-tailed marmot, especially living in the Highlands, a new observation partial nelinyaniya (Kapitonov, 1963, 1964), in which the tail, rump, back at least part of the back part or all fade only after a year. For example, of the eight skins marmot habitat of the lower belt land in Kazakhstan washable fur were two, and the skins of 28 of the High Pamir – 14. Their size reaches 375 cm2 that is, about a quarter of the entire skin. Washable plots vary in size and shape, but almost always a good stand dry, rough to the touch, dull clay-yellow fur, under which the surface of the skin usually accumulate a thick layer of loose flakes exfoliate the epidermis. Partial nelinyanie observed in males and females, but among the latter more often – at breeding in a given year, and much lower in Yalova.

Young animals that appear from holes in the lower zone habitat in the last week of May – the first of June, covered puhlyavym juvenile scalp. And a half to two weeks after their release hair growth ends. Underfur height in the middle of the back (based on specimens from the Aksu Dzhabagly Reserve) is at this time 15-17, and guard hairs – 20-27 mm. Last rather small, thin, curved, so the fur seems lackluster puhlyavym and disheveled. Hair, intertwined, well withstand wind and bloating undoubtedly reduce its cooling effect.

With the end of the growth of juvenile fur scrapings brightens, but after about a week on it again, there are black pigment from bulbs rails and guard hairs cover the secondary and soon, almost simultaneously in a large area of the back of the back, showing regrowth of secondary cover. Regrowth it is initially without significant thinning of the juvenile. Juvenile hair fall gradually after the secondary grow back about halfway. Changing the hair begins at the back of the back, but neighboring areas it covers skins so fast that sometimes it seems as if the hair growth started simultaneously across the back. In general, the sequence of moult in young marmots is the same as in adults. Changing the juvenile hair lasts about six weeks and ends at the same time with the end of molting females had cubs in a given year.

Many surchat, especially in the highlands, the tail stays in juvenile-nilnom hairline until next year: some whole, others only in the final third. Sometimes individuals from the highlands and on the rump remain areas of juvenile cover almost without admixture of secondary hair. They stand out roughness, lack luster, lighter yellow-colored clay, and almost complete absence of guard hairs. Partial replacement of the juvenile cover similar partial nelinyaniyu adult marmots and is probably due to common causes.

We can assume that is the consequence of a peculiar nevylinivanie save energy in the body, which contributes to the rapid and full implementation of the process is more important – the accumulation of fat, which is especially necessary in the short summers and harsh climate of high mountains. It is not called low fatness or any animal diseases.

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