As mentioned above, the overall survival tactics in the mountains directly depends on the vertical zonation, that is, on how high the accident occurred. In the highlands of the victims will face some of the same problems as in the high latitudes — lack of food of plant and animal origin, low air temperatures, the presence of snow cover, lack of fuel for fires and other emergency Belt forest provides about the same possibilities for survival as the taiga, etc. The specific methods of self-salvation can find information in the relevant chapters of the book.
However, there are pure mountain hazards such as life-threatening, the victim of the accident and of themselves can be the cause of the disaster. The most serious risks in the first place should include specific mountain relief, which has predominantly vertical structure, and the associated increased risk of flooding, rock falls, severe thunderstorm threat, the possibility of disruption from vertical plummet to fall. For example, according to statistics from the disruption on the rocks, avalanches, rock falls, falls into the cracks, curtain falls, lightning killed about 80% of fans of mountaineering and climbing of the victims. And only 20% of the victims fell on the frozen, dead from starvation and disease, and other causes.
The next significant threat factor can be considered climate. By itself, the bad weather is rarely a cause of accidents (usually general hypothermia that has occurred due to a sharp drop in temperature, strong wind), but triggers avalanches, landslides, rock falls, difficult orientation during heavy fog, rain, leading to overflow of the mountain rivers, which are extremely dangerous for the ferry, the wind complicates on rocky terrain, etc.
Has a significant impact on the performance of people, their attention, reaction and psychological stability anoxia caused by the thin air and begins to affect the altitude of 2000 m
A significant number of accidents in the mountains due to the ferries across the mountain river, with the underestimation of the strength of the water flow and low water temperatures. Hence it is very important, especially in a crash, serious approach to the crossings even through the smallest and seemingly safe water obstacles.
The overall strategy of survival in the mountains may be reduced to a more rapid descent from high altitude areas to safer middle mountains and foothills (although even here there are exceptions, such as when a fire is better to climb the snowy slopes and glaciers). In this case, you should always choose the path of return, moving from the known, previously Overcoming route. Random walk in the mountains in order to reduce the path is not valid because it can only lead to a worsening of the situation in distress.
The required safety measures during mining trips include: the ability to self-organize a reliable and vzaimostrahovku on dangerous sections of the road, to build various types of frame-and-fabric especially snow shelters to navigate. Particular attention should be paid to the ability to signal distress and organize reception rescue helicopter as rescue operations involving aircraft is most common in the mountainous areas of the country.
More information about travel in the high mountains, the related risks can be found in the widespread tourist or mountaineering literature, in magazines and newspapers.
The only thing I will mention is the use of ropes for self-organization and vzaimostrahovki. Again, not in terms of climbing, but of survival. Especially in the situation where we need to overcome the dangerous section area is not without risk of falling from a height of several tens of meters, man can be not only in the mountains.
For ropes used in mountaineering, has its own Standards, well-defined and less strictly executed. You bet! They have to trust their own lives. Here trash at a loss.
In an emergency rope, meeting all quality standards, may just not be found. Therefore, in exceptional cases, when the obstacle can not be fooled, it is permissible to use improvised ropes. You can even make them from natural materials. But these recommendations that I know I do not dare to publish, fearing liability for any troubles related to their breakage.
In any case, all you have, before using the rope as insurance should double check, and triple load better, including on break. If you have to hang on it alone, do the same thing, but in a safe place, two or three people. For example, a hook for a high branch of a tree and, seizing all together, jump from a height of 2 — 3 m, strongly pulling the rope with which hang. Then, inspect the entire length of the rope — whether ruptured fiber puffs, deformation, etc. defects.
But even if this rope pass the test, it should be used very carefully, constantly monitoring her condition.
In the implementation of the insurance with a random rope must try to keep her vnatyag, reducing the possible explosive load.
Once again — climbing insurance policy in case of non-standard cords can only be used in very truncated volume. Equally, it applies to overcome vertical obstacles in general. Where the climber is, you better crawl, where he boldly pits 10m rope, you better limit yourself to two, where it estimates the average obstacle as easy, you better find it particularly difficult, and, finally, where it goes the hill (he and the climber), you should look for a workaround. Last most reasonable. A rope can be used for the device fabric shelters, fishing, drying clothes and other household needs. It will not be useless.
Descend the steep slopes on the rope is allowed only in cases where all other avenues have been exhausted. To do this, start a support rope (stone, wood), and extends to the middle so in dual form, is passed through the leg and shoulder (Fig. 96).After descending rope gently and smoothly pulled over one of the ends, until the full release. Before going into a risky way down the slope, you should practice somewhere safe.
The same rope can be turned into a more or less reliable belay harness needed when you walk on steep slopes and working on pitches. Besides ropes, you can use the ribbons cut from sturdy fabric. On Fig. 97is one way to a makeshift harness.
In any case, the primitive binding, made of random materials, can not be considered as a full replacement of natural, produced according to the techniques described in the literature. Use primitive harness permissible only with simple insurance and at low altitudes, after testing it on break and samozatyagivanie. The last is important because as spontaneous when it involves stripping chest harness height can cause serious injury to a person.
By moving up the steep mountain slopes victims must be prepared for the fact that at any moment later they could slip or stumble and fall. And we must remember that any fall in the mountains can be fraught mnogosotmetrovym subsequent flight into the abyss, if not stop it in the beginning, until the sliding speed is low. In tourism, the act defines "samozaderzhanie" (Fig. 98).
On grassy slopes and scree samozaderzhanie should be, resting on the surface of the lower end of the slope (shtychkom) ice ax, alpenstocks or substitute their strong, sharp pointed and burnt in the fire end of the rod. When started slip next over on his stomach, feet slightly apart, and thus increasing the area of friction, stop. If that's not enough, you need to rest against slope alpenstock, a stick, or at least a knife. If interrupted on the icy slope to cut into the ice beak ice pick or a sharp object like him (ax, a knife), and not to weaken the pressure to this point.
For lowering and lifting the mountainside people with no mountain training, it is best to use the makeshift ladder.
Rope ladder — the most convenient and democratic for the distressed subject of climbing equipment, so it does not require special skills to use.
Rope ladders can be either traditional — two separated by a 20 — 30 cm of rope, wooden slats connected and non-traditional — odnoverevochnymi related from the same or another rope loops.
On Fig. 99shows the classic rope ladder with rungs made of tree branches.
In the absence of a suitable tree, you can do only one rope, tying the entire length of the loop-step (Fig. 100).
Sequence binding loop is shown in Fig. 101.
More convenient rope ladders, where the nodes on hinges increased by an additional plexus rope. These "steps" give great support leg (Fig. 102).
Given that the basis of any mining equipment traveler — a rope, I will give you some figures that show: how to mark the rope for easy carrying and storage bay (Fig. 103);how to make a thick rope of several thin twisting way (Fig. 104)or braiding (Fig. 105);how to splice rope same and different thickness (Fig. 106).
I will no longer specify a chapter on the mountain of self-salvation, for the simple reason that, in contrast to, for example, the marine emergency, taiga, or even desert, to the high plain man can not easily get. For that he, at least, will have to buy a specific mining equipment and learn how to use it, for what seem like climbing advice section or read the technical literature. That is forced to pass, in one form or another, pre-training, which will be much more effective than my theoretical recommendations.