Bruises are formed from exposure to power-stroke (sticks, stones, etc.), or from a fall on a hard object. With bruises and broken form subcutaneous ecchymosis (bruising).
Signs of injury include pain, swelling and bluish tinge to the skin damaged area. After some time, the bruise becomes brown, green and yellow.
First aid is a cold compress. Bruised body should be lowered into the water, and if the size of the reservoir does not allow (a pool, water dripping from the rocks, snow, ice), you should soak the cloth from clothing or a handkerchief and put it to the injured spot. When snow and ice, the effect is even greater. During the day several times to be changed cold compresses. Then heat the place of injury is shown, and in a few days — a massage.
Sprains and torn ligaments are formed when too much muscle tension, and if the person to stumble and turn up the leg. In this ligament can be torn partially or completely. Symptoms are the same as for an injury, but still added and limited function of joints.
First aid is completely at rest, cold compresses, and a pressure bandage. A day — warm. Massage can be performed no sooner than 8-10 days.
Complete ligament rupture is quite a serious injury that can not be treated independently. In this case, the imposition of a pressure bandage to walk only with the help of a makeshift crutch.
Sprains occur from the external environment at the joint area (shock, fall), and the bone is fully or partly cease contact with each other. Bag replacement is usually broken, and support ligaments are stretched. At the slightest movement causes pain, the joint does not move and swells, it changes its configuration.
First aid is to make the joint position at which decreases pain and fix this place a bandage of the above. Dislocated arm fixed scarf or something it replaces as well as fracture. It is useful to put on a sprained joint cold compress.