They are products of plant and animal origin in their natural or subjected to special treatment as containing substances necessary for the body to compensate for the total spent on the process of life, as well as the need to ensure its growth and development. It is said that man does not live to eat, but eat to live. Through food, its various chemicals is associated with the environment, the natural environment. This ancient link connects all living beings, it is essential to its existence. Repeatedly stressed the thought luminaries Russian physiologist Ivan Sechenov, Pavlov. Every living organism spends during the life of various substances, fills them with food. And, food should be healthy, and for that satisfy taste, visual, olfactory perception of people to give him a pleasant taste. Academician IP Pavlov spoke of the need to enjoy the food.
The food should contain all the substances that are part of the body, ie proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, antioxidants, minerals and water. There are a lot of reliable data, we see whether the use of plant foods. They show that in areas where power predominates in various plant foods, people are sick less and live longer. Of course, animal food as needed. It provides the body with proteins and fats, which are not in plants. Although there are different opinions. Meets vegetarian diet program eliminates some or all animal products. We advocate a balanced, mixed diet, particularly for children, during their rapid growth and development, as well as the aging of the body for the elderly.
How we perceive the taste of food? Human taste receptors are located in the mouth, mainly on the tongue, the papillae taste buds. They are kind of on the surface of the soft palate and the posterior pharyngeal wall. Less ability to perceive tastes have epiglottis and tonsils. Gums, lips, cheeks do not have this feature. Physiologists shared tastes into 4 categories: sweet, bitter, salty, sour. Moreover, the sweet taste is felt most strongly tip of the tongue, salty-edged language and its tip, sour – the edges of language, and bitter – the tongue in the throat. The speed with which you experience the taste sensation is different. The slowest perceived bitter taste, a little faster – sour. Even faster and fastest sweet – salty. The first sip when testing food provides the most complete and vivid sense of taste, the subsequent lack of sharpness. To taste buds perceive taste good, they also like the food must be moistened with saliva. While tongue, oral cavity and food dry, it is difficult to determine the features of taste. That is why we instinctively when we want something to try, chew well, how would relish the food to, moistening with saliva to pinpoint taste. Affect the taste and temperature of the product. In a hot product taste smoother, muted. Each product has the best temperature testing. Sour and salty taste increasingly felt in the cold dish than hot. The sweetness of the same, either hot or cold as a product. Feel the taste of salt is lower in fatty foods taste fat is smoothed by adding acid.
We take food and a sense of smell. We are attracted by the smell. Olfactory organ is located deep in the nasal cavity. It consists of special cells with sensitive hairs. But for the perception of olfactory sensations to do vigorous, strong and short breath, and then hold your breath for 2-3 seconds and exhale. It is best to determine the odor at zataivaniya breathing. The olfactory apparatus of man is such that we feel and smell of swallowing food. Drug him smoking, taking alcohol.
The important role played by the appearance of food. Experienced cooks say before like our mouth, the dish should caress the eye. Even in field conditions garnish food greens and his good humor.
Wild edible plants, as well as other foods are cooked.
Cooking. Heating in water or other liquid boiling over. The ratio of liquid during cooking and product varies. Cooking with a small amount of liquid, the liquid does not cover the full product, called pripuskaniya. Pripuskaniya with spices and seasonings – fire. When cooking vegetables, herbs in water to want to be quick to cook them, to reduce the loss of nutrients, so they are placed into the boiling water and boil in a pot, the lid closed.
Herbal products are of considerable rigidity, which is due to two reasons. This is – a strong intercellular substance plant tissue and structure of cell walls. During cooking hot water partially dissolves substances that make up the cells. Communication between cells are weakened, loosened cell walls. Substances gluing cells slowly turn into a soluble state in the presence of acids, salt and brackish water. Therefore, vegetables and other plant foods bad boil soft in salted water. Heat treatment changes the color of the plants. After cooking, they are greenish-brown, due to the interaction of dye (chlorophyll) from the acid in the cell sap of green vegetables. In the cells of living green plants acid does not come into contact with chlorophyll. Cooking disrupts the normal structure of the cells and the color changes. Herbs and vegetables retain their color when in the water, where they are cooked, put a pinch of baking soda (about'' / g teaspoon per 1 kg of green).
Passerovanie. Some plants, including wild plants contain essential oils. This aromatic and flavor foods. If they are easy to add to soups, sauces without treatment, during cooking much of the essential oils evaporate. Affect the taste, appearance, aroma of cooked dishes. So fragrant vegetable foods should sauté. To do this they finely sliced and heated with a small amount of fat (15-20% of the weight of the vegetables). In this case, essential oils, volatile vegetables are absorbed fat from the fat of the essential oils stand slowly, so the taste and aroma of plants, useful properties are preserved. Soluble in fat and dyes.
Boiled unpeeled vegetables better preserve vitamins, especially vitamin C than peeled. Therefore, salads, vinaigrettes in the skin of boiled vegetables healthier than refined. When cooked peeled potatoes loses about 50% of vitamin C, frying about 25%. When storing the vitamin C is rapidly degraded. For example, in soups and soup after 6 hours of preparation it is not.
It's hot. Products heated without adding liquid, but with more or less fat.
Salads made from cooked, fresh vegetables, fruits, green plants. Cooked products for salads, cool peeled if they are welded to the skin. Products to cut lettuce, mixed. Seasoned salads and make out no earlier than 30 minutes before serving.
Soups. Prepare mainly in meat broth or vegetable broth. The latter are particularly nutritious, easily digestible, suitable for dietary food. Items put in boiling broth, and cook the potatoes first, then other vegetables. Spices are added to the end of cooking, herbs can be added in the beams, which are at the end of cooking, just removed from the soup. Soup different from the usual soup because the broth is administered in the form of puree pureed foods. Rub them through a sieve or mince, ground in a food processor. Particles to pureed foods not settle na bottom, to get the desired consistency they add white sauce. To puree soups served separately dried toast of white bread, cut into small cubes and cakes. Cold soups are prepared to mouth, vegetable broth, whey, buttermilk, sour milk. In meat hodgepodge often add lemon juice to enhance the flavor. Improves the taste and increases the nutritional value of cream, which put in at hodgepodge serving.
Soup. The main component is a part of kale, nettles, sorrel and other greens, including wild. Prepare them for meat or other broth, add hard-boiled eggs. To serve, put the sour cream and mayonnaise.