Cognitive development-11

The second group of children brought against simply moving objects from one point to another in the horizontal (see Fig. 7.19). First subject stood motionless at one point, and then move toward the other, which again stopped for a while before returning to the starting position. Such a sequence of stops and reciprocating motion was repeated several times. In terms of Piaget's model, this situation is rich with conflict. Whenever the subject begins to move or stay, there are contradictions between the existing child incomplete information on the subject. Therefore, training in this situation should have led to the development on a broad front, including development interpolation trajectories in the problem-Mundy Castle. In terms of the model of learning about any transfer not out of the question, since situation training and problem-Mundy Castle were too different for the generalization stimulus and response. The experimental results with maximum certainty speak in favor of the hypothesis of Piaget. Infants who trained in conflict situations, observed four times interpolated trajectories compared with babies, practiced in a circular tracking. Situations of conflict also leads to the development — the result is entirely consistent with the assumptions of Piaget.
Further confirmation of the hypothesis of Piaget can be found in a study in infants who are at an age when development could be called training. In developing the ability to track the subject usually is a temporary difference between the two types of behavior that are associated with staying or, alternatively, the "start" things. Combining these two types of behavior occurs later. Usually, but not always, occur faster anticipating reactions in response to a moving object. Thus, it is possible to train the child in a situation that involves the use of only one type of behavior. The baby is not yet an alternative form of behavioral response, and therefore it can not be in conflict with his existing first type of behavior. The situation is as follows: if the child in this stage of development, the subject is presented, moving from one place to another, it does not lead to contradictions, as in the behavioral repertoire of the infant is only a reaction to the movement.
Will training in this situation to advance development and for the development of a conflict need? According to the model of development of the proposed theory of learning, improvement of some alternative forms of behavior can begin at any time after the initial behavior. Thus, if the baby continues to track the trajectory of the object stopped, the subsequent lack of eye contact with the subject should have led to the extinction of response tracking.
A test of these hypotheses was based on comparing the results of this task in two groups of infants. In one set of experiments began at the age of eight weeks, and in another — at the age of twelve weeks. In each group, we tested the reaction daily tracking object that was moving around and stopped at random points of the trajectory. At the age of 16 weeks in any of the groups do not make mistakes, of which to speak of. None of the groups of infants did not continue after stopping the tracking object. However, while the eight-week group additionally trained for four weeks, the job of these babies performed worse than the control group of subjects — not for errors and, for successful tracking. Infants experimental group followed the bad end. Moreover, they seem to have found the situation uncomfortable. Thus, it seems that if the experiment is introduced to correct the behavior in an age when there are alternative ways of handling the situation, it does not lead to improvement, but rather to the complete extinction of behavior. This result is consistent with the concept of Piaget, but it completely contradicts the predictions of any simple model of learning.

Добавить комментарий

Tags: , , , , , ,

Site "Survival in the wild nature", glad to see you. If you come to us, it means you want to get complete information about survival in a variety of extreme conditions, in emergency situations. Man, throughout the development, sought to preserve and protect themselves from the various negative factors surrounding it - cold, heat, hunger, dangerous animals and insects.

Site structure "Survival in the wild nature" is simple and logical, selecting a specific section, you will find information. You will find on our website recommendations and practical advice on survival, unique descriptions and pictures of animals and plants, turn-based scheme to trap wild animals, tests and reviews of travel gear, rare books on survival and wildlife. The site also has a large section devoted to video on survival survivalist-known professionals around the world.

The main theme of the site, "Survival in the wild nature" - is to be ready to be in the wild, and the ability to survive in extreme conditions.

The Survival in the wild nature - how correctly to behave, it having appeared in an emergency situation. Ability to find a way out from any situation: to kindle a fire, to put traps, to prepare food, to arrange dwelling and a lodging for the night; to learn to knit knots, to clear water, to be guided by districts, correctly to choose equipment, a knife. Also you can download directories to tourists, encyclopedias survivals, video Bear Grills to Survive at any cost (Man vs. Wild).