To quickly make a fire, a man headed for nature, must take a so-called NCP (portable emergency): dry spirit tablets, candle-end, dry kindling, matches, protected by a layer of wax, lighter, and others in the forest, these reserves can be replenished dry resinous twigs, conifer resin, pieces of bark.
Before making a fire kindling zagotovte — resinous brushwood, dry pine needles and grass, thin twigs and bark).'' Whatever it was damp in the forest, a little dry fuel you, as a rule, find — a protruding above ground roots of an old tree, overhanging rocks and in other secluded places where moisture is not penetrated. Get to dry wood can stesav wet layer of the cortex. Gathering necessary planed several branches or torches, but the chips do not cut to the end and leave on a stick. Overlaid chips dry birch bark, moss, twigs without leaves. Kindling ignited from the bottom (if it burns in full) will be engaged from it thicker dry branches that are well laid shalashikom. Gradually insert pieces more thick branches. Between branches and logs need to leave a gap for air access to the fire, "choked", especially if your kindling dominated dry grass and leaves.
Fuel must enclose a little, not to extinguish the fire. If the material is dry enough, light a candle and drip candle wax on wood chips or paraffin. Save matches. Using a bonfire made of plastic, avoid inhaling the toxic smoke. Be extremely careful with the fuel and lubricants — gasoline, kerosene, oil, etc. Never pour flammable liquid on the fire, but only slightly at first obleyte her firewood. Better to opt out of such materials, to use them only in extreme cases.
In a wooded area, select the location for the fire, well sheltered from the wind, and thoroughly cleanse it. Do not dilute the large fire under overhanging branches of the trees on the dry moss and peat. This may cause a forest fire.
When formed in a fire hot ash and coals, it is easy to not go out, and we can lay a damp wood (pre-need to clear them from the bark). If drizzling rain, the first pull is a small tent and build a fire under it. Harvested wood as possible Escape from the rain spruce branches, plastic wrap or cloth. Raw logs to quickly erupted, sometimes enough to sprinkle them with coarse salt.
If a forest of dry wood does not, try to arrange a bonfire under a dry stump, he smolders long and therefore suitable for continuous heating.
In treeless areas — steppe, tundra, etc. — can serve as fuel fin (beached tree trunks), dwarf trees, turf, dry grass. Peat should be cut into small pieces and dry as possible. Grass tie in bundles — so it will take longer to burn. Use as a fuel with a cloth soaked with kerosene, oil or gasoline, suitable pieces of rubber and other combustible materials, and dry thorn plants and animal dung.
Fire in front of the entrance to the temporary housing should be located so that sparks and smoke from getting inside. If at the shelter you have built or installed hearth fat lamp, be sure to provide adequate ventilation. Otherwise you run the risk of seriously poisoned by carbon monoxide.
The device fires:
The fires depending on the destination (alarm, cooking, drying things, heating) are of several types. Used for heating large bonfire, and cooking — a small, cone-shaped, possibly coated with stones, which can also place the dishes.
[Caption id = "attachment_4829" align = "aligncenter" width = "300" caption = "Shelter"][/ Caption]
"Shelter." For such a fire suit any wood that can be laid on the coals in the form of shelter. Logs placed obliquely to the center, and they partly rely on each other. When this device is mainly burn wood at the top of the flame turns bright, high and hot, with a band-limited heating. Fireplace requires constant placing the wood. [Caption id = "attachment_4828" align = "aligncenter" width = "300" caption = "The Pit"][/ Caption]
"The Pit." The most common type of fire. Composed of relatively equal length and thickness logs. After kindling heated, two logs are placed in parallel to the fire, at some distance from each other, across them — two, etc. This provides a good masonry air access to the fire, and the logs are usually evenly lit throughout. This gives a lot of fire flames and coals. Heating zone had significantly more than the "tent." If the "well" is intended to be used as a signal light, the "frame" set not gradually, but at once, kindling material is placed inside it.
[Caption id = "attachment_4830" align = "aligncenter" width = "300" caption = "Star"][/ Caption]
"Star." The logs are laid on the coals by radii from a single point. Combustion occurs mainly in the center, and the wood burning as promote closer to the middle.
[Caption id = "attachment_4844" align = "aligncenter" width = "300" caption = "Taiga"][/ Caption]
"Taiga". When you need to give a lot of heat the fire and burned a long time, without requiring the continuous addition of wood, is indispensable so called taiga fire. His stack of logs 1.5-2 m in length and thickness of about 10 cm, round or cut once lengthwise. This fire can be installed in three ways.
1. Consists of long pieces of wood in two rows (top and bottom) for two or three logs each. Rows intersect at some utlom. The upper number is placed so that it intersects with the bottom of a pile of coal. Place fire at the intersection of rows.
2. About utley put a thick piece of wood, and the rest is put on him over the coals.
3. Three or four logs laid on the coals close or nearly close to each other. Combustion is the length of logs, mainly in the areas of contact.
"Taiga" fire is good because it burns long enough without extra fuel and distributes heat to a large area, so you can sleep next to him without shelter over their heads.
[Caption id = "attachment_4839" align = "aligncenter" width = "300" caption = "Nodya"][/ Caption]
"Nodya." Arranged three logs laid one on another. The logs do not roll out the dough on both sides close to them scoring stakes. Before you lay "Nodyu", necessary to wait until there are heavy hot coals. Then stir the coals have and spread in a narrow strip along the length of logs and coals on top sketch sticks. When firewood good will, it is placed logs (pre useful to make them serifs — so they flare up quickly.) Dry logs, reaching a diameter of 40-50 cm, burning all night. Such a fire can sleep even in extreme cold. There is another version of "nodi" when two logs are placed next to and on top of them — the third. In frosty weather, you can relax between two "nodyami", arranged parallel to each other at a distance of 2 — 2.5 m Fires like "nodi" it is desirable to have the direction of the wind.
[Caption id = "attachment_4841" align = "aligncenter" width = "300" caption = "A stone hearth"][/ Caption]
'Stone hearth'. Equipped of boulders, debris, rocks, etc. The stones are moved so as to form a rectangular chamber, one side of which is open to the air. Usually placed on top of the pot. In the steppe focus can be drawn from pieces of turf. [Caption id = "attachment_4842" align = "aligncenter" width = "300" caption = "Dakota"][/ Caption]
"Dakota". The simplest closed hearth fire. For its production in the ground dig a pit depth of 30-40 cm and a diameter of 25 cm and 35-40 cm above the bottom. Adjacent to the first hole, at a distance of 25-30 cm, slightly inclined towards her snatch second (15-20 cm in diameter). Pit at the bottom of interconnected small way. In a large hole (center) provide fuel, and smaller is podduvalom. Over such a hotbed can dry clothes and prepare food. This device is particularly useful in high winds, as well as when you want to hide their presence.
A few important tips:
- Do not light a fire lighter, better to use it to light the torch. By prolonged heating, the more inclined, lighter immediately forever fail.
- Before a fire, carefully prepare and collect kindling wood quality. Take the time! Lose a minute, but save NAZ (portable emergency).
- When blow the fire, gain air to the lungs, a little aloof from the smoke.
- Longer to keep warm, the fire burnt coal ash should fall asleep and a little ground. The heat in this case is stored up to 10 hours The same principle is used to carry the fire.
- Be sure to watch the burning fire. This measure is necessary not only to maintain the fire, but also for the prevention of fire.
- Leaving the parking lot, be sure to put out the fire, even if it were only to barely smoldering embers and coals. If possible, fill it. Remember that the main cause of forest fires — fires poorly repaid.