In conditions of constant publicity in many of our subjects actualization need for privacy. To actualize this need during the long flight group also point to the astronauts. VI Sevast'yanov writes that in space flight, "along with communication a person must retreat, meeting needs to be alone with you" 246.
D. Lindsley others believe I provide each individual astronaut compartment for sleeping and leisure essential for the successful implementation of long flights. Referring to the experience of Antarctic groups, and other similar situations, they argue that the long-term sharing of one residential sections by two individuals is fraught with the danger of escalating petty interpersonal clashes in serious conflicts that are difficult to control. In their view, "the need for solitude, loneliness and territoriality is evident even for short periods in a confined space and tends to increase over time."
Antarctic explorer MK Mogilyantsev writes: "In a closed team perfected the ability of people to understand the emotional state of each other. Seems to be good, but it is very dangerous — to know each other to the bottom in poor compatibility, because at the bottom you can find too much, to hurt, and serious, and the sick. Even if you are not looking for an argument, it is still discern those behaviors colleagues from whom you are tired. Not today, not yesterday — much earlier. So few people — hungry for people around one and the same person, but there is no way to not only quench the hunger, and you can not be alone with him "248. About the needs of members of the Antarctic expedition in the privacy of R. Baird said: "We were a few people who, in spite of the cold, go for a walk every day. Sometimes we walked in groups, but often walked alone … because everyone wanted to be alone with him "249.
To make life more bearable seven — ten people living in group isolation, M. Mare considers necessary in the construction of facilities for polar wintering include, "to every member of the expedition was a separate, albeit small room. This is necessary for the moral health of the inhabitants "250, is of interest to observe C. Borchgrevink, the expedition of ten for the first time in the world has spent the winter in Antarctica in 1889-1890. He writes: "The wooden beds arranged along the walls, one above the other. On the advice of a physician beds were taken by bulkheads, so we had to get into them and come out through the hole, curtained with a cloth. Doctors believe that many useful and even necessary at times to stay in alone, soon confirmed the correctness of this … During the Antarctic night, we are so bored with each other, which sometimes can be observed the following picture: anyone going to get out, gently lift my curtain to make sure that the room is not an alien, a hated person . Seeing a friend who had already got out of his bed … he again draws the curtain her, as if he saw the severed head of Medusa "251.
When there are opportunities for walks, people in the group are trying to isolate all the ways to find a way to retreat. So, in a one-year experiment the subjects germokamery every ten days I was sleeping shelves arranged in a tier. AN Bozhko writes that everyone waited impatiently for their turn to get on the top shelf, because it "allows maximum containment." When sailing on a raft "Tahiti Nui", says A. Bourn, the expedition members were happy at night, "because, when night came, we did not see each other." According to VD Tkachenko, 50% of the rank and file seiners, forced to live in a cabin, tempted to be alone with him.
If it is impossible to meet the need for privacy in a group there are two forms of insulation protection mechanisms. The first of them — the full disclosure of the spiritual world to the other band members.
In 1930-1934. in Greenland in the "ice sheet" was established base on which to spend the winter remained K. Riley and M. Lindsay — people of different character and temperament. During the winter they had removed all obstacles in communication, leading to psychological openness. M. Lindsay recalled: "Even though the days spent together at the" ice sheet ", destroy all the barriers between us as it may seem, such a closeness never recovered (after returning to the ordinary conditions of life. — VL)" 252. On the psychological openness while sailing on a papyrus boat "Ra" T. Heyerdahl wrote: "We have lived as if in a hostel — no secrets, all day and night from each other at hand and mind" 253. On a psychological phenomenon "nakedness", "reversing itself inside out" in a group isolated pointed D. Lindsley and others.
Pereadaptirovavshiesya to the conditions of the group isolated people stopped shy of each other and their physical nakedness. Comparing swimming on 'Ra-1 "and" Ra-2 ", A. Sienkiewicz noted, during the voyage of" Ra-2 "found that" we are no longer shy of each other. Roam, figuratively speaking, in a negligee, not afraid of inadvertently hurt companion word or gesture, our replica candor sometimes excessive and borders tactlessness "254.
The second form of compensatory mechanisms, if you can not be alone with yourself is the periodic autizatsiya 255, achieved by immersion in a world of its own at the time of the diary. About this form of compensation can be seen in many accounts of people caught up in the group isolation.
Thus, V. Sevastyanov said that during the flight he and P. Klimuk diaries were: "happy with who … and wrote. This is a necessary condition when a person goes from day to day, and general thoughts and concerns. Our experience I think it says that it is important to be able to at a certain time for a certain period to retire in their thoughts "256, D. Scott, said:" The desert has little to do with privacy. Tam (the "ice sheet." — VL .) we had much less of privacy than in ordinary life … Solitary was us only in dreams or in dreams, or in some other form, when we were writing diaries "257. The favorable effect of intimate diary on the mental state of the people in the group also noted isolation Borchgrevink, Byrd and others.
This is also indicated participants prolonged experiments in cells in small groups. EI Gavrikov: "I feel that the blog is a joy, I want to write. Perhaps a limitation of communication …" SP Kukishev: "… he (Gavrikov. — VL) so tormented me with oohs-sigh … ostentatious, as I thought, phlegm and deliberate negative judgment, that it was very difficult not to give his fortune word, tone or gesture, behavior, attitude. rescued diary. Without this channel, which spilled over to all the experiences of the day and the moment one tore the phrase could lead to disastrous consequences, "258. AN Bozhko: "In such circumstances it is not possible," pour out his heart ", the diary becomes the sole silent friend and always faithful ally … That's why every day I keep a diary of events of our lives. So does Herman and probably for the same reasons, "259.
Specific psychogenic factor acting in a group isolation, exhaustion is an information communication partner.