Physical education in special groups in schools and vocational schools | The survival encyclopedia


Physical education in special groups in schools and vocational schools

Students of schools and specialized secondary educational institutions, depending on the physical development and health are divided into three medical groups — primary, preparatory and special.
Most children and adolescents engaged in physical training in the basic group of middle-school program or a special school. Referred to the preparatory group engaged with the main, but with some limitations (see Sec. 7, § 8).
Students with poor health, chronic diseases, after injuries and acute illnesses that require limitation of physical activity, are engaged in a special group for special programs.
Physical education for these children is essential. Regular physical exercise have a health-building effect, increases the body's adaptation to physical activity, in some cases, improve the disturbed functions by improving the compensatory mechanisms, in other cases, normalize them.
Students that require not primarily health-building effects of exercise, and special therapeutic effect or for which even in the special classes are unavailable, shall be exempt from them and have to deal with medical physical culture in the district hospital.
When recruiting special groups for age, disease, functional status, and physical development of students. Depending on the age of the same group of students combine two or three classes, such as the 1st to 3rd class, from 4 th to 6 th, 7 th and 8 th, 9 th and 10 th grades. Based on the disease in the same group of students combined with internal diseases: cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive and endocrine systems. This group has added those who show significant impairment and functional disorders of the nervous system. The other group includes students with disorders of the musculoskeletal system: disorders of posture and scoliosis, joint diseases, traumas, organic diseases of the nervous system, birth defects of the musculoskeletal system.
Classes for special groups are held outside of timetables (before or after) 2 times a week for 45 minutes. or 3 times a week for 30 minutes. Number of students enrolled in the group must not exceed 15 people.
The main objectives of physical education students of special groups are: health, promoting good physical development and hardening of the body, increasing the physiological activity of the organs and systems weakened by disease, improving physical and mental performance, development of basic motor skills of those provided by the program.
In the classroom teach the theoretical knowledge of the mode of the day, hardening, hygienic rules.
The program includes a special group of widely used educational material of the main group, but are limited to exercises for speed, strength and endurance. For example, the reduced distance in the race. Additionally introduced in her section of breathing exercises, increased use of training exercises for correct posture and strengthen the muscles of the torso. Especially widely these exercises should be used in a special group, which engaged students with disorders of the musculoskeletal system.
Program is recommended for most classes in the open air.
The school program is a special group in the 1 — 3rd class consists of physical exercises: building and rebuilding, general developmental exercises without subjects and objects (balls, gymnastic stick) exercise on posture and breathing, climbing wall bars and inclined bench; perelezaniya through a variety of obstacles, walking, running, jumping, throwing a ball, outdoor games, skiing. From 4th grade classes are supplemented by exercises on gymnastic equipment (boom, beam), are included in the mixed visy low bar, rings. From 5th class — simple visy and stops, dance exercises, long jump and high with a short run-up, skiing on slaboperesechennoy areas up to 1.5 km for boys, up to 1 km for girls, elements of sports. In the 7-8th grade gymnastics complicated, more widely used elements of sports, walking on skis made by sredneperesechennoy areas — up to 3 km for boys and up to 2 km for girls, along with the throwing of balls used grenade throwing and weighing 250-500 g pushing medicine ball weighing 3 kg for boys and 2 kg for girls.
In vocational schools program task force includes restorative exercises without subjects and objects (rope, stuffed balls, gymnastic sticks, hoops, ribbons), exercises on gymnastic equipment — gym bench, wall, beams of different heights (mixed visy and stops, peremahi feet-ups and Vis, balance, simple dismount), rings, goat (jumps) outdoor games, basketball with light regulations and frequent changes of players, volleyball, athletics: running, alternating with walking, running with speeds of 20-60 m, long jump and high with a short run, throwing grenades and shot put; ski training: learning different moves, items, winter sports, skiing up to 3 km, swimming, swimming lessons.
Special features of the teaching methods of a shortening of the main body by increasing the preparatory and final parts. As part of the preparatory activities can include exercises that improve impaired function, given the nature of the disease. Despite the fact that classes are held in a special group on the program, the same for all students, it is necessary strictly personal approach to dealing with: dosage of exercise depending on the disease and the physical fitness of the student. On the body's response to stress is judged by the pulse rate, which is checked before class, in the middle of it — after the most difficult exercises — and after class. It is particularly important to gradually increase the pressure in the group with internal diseases. For this group, in the first months of training is allowable increased heart rate during the execution of the greatest load to 24-30 beats per 1 min. and only to the extent of adaptation to physical activity — up to 130 — 140 punches in 1 minute. By the end of training heart rate should be close to the initial level. It is also important to closely monitor the degree of fatigue involved. The group dealing with disorders of the musculoskeletal system (abnormal posture and scoliosis), an emphasis on strengthening the muscles of the body (muscular system), education of correct posture. Widely used in the classroom assumptions as unloading the spine (see Chapter 24.).
In assessing the performance included regular attendance, technique exercises, development of new motor skills.
Student with good adaptation to physical exercise teacher sends him to the doctor for a transfer to the preparatory group.

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