Fish — water vertebrates widespread in almost all waters of the world. The image of fish life are connected by their biological characteristics: the organs of motion — fins, respiratory system — gills, there is a special body — the bladder; fertilization in most fish outside: females spawn, which pours male seminal fluid. In all there (along with minerals), about 25 thousand species of fish and in the USSR — 1400.
The fish is mainly used as foodstuff. In this regard, they can be a source of human infection with parasitic worms and some bacterial pathogens of diseases as well as a source of food poisoning. The most dangerous to humans Diphyllobothriasis (see), opisthorchiasis (see), rarely clonorchiasis (see), metagonimoz (see). Of human pathogens bacteria are particularly dangerous agents of botulism (see), salmonella (see) and other food poisoning (see), the causative agent erysipeloid (see). With the consumption of poisonous fish related and some non-bacterial food poisoning nature (see Poisonous animals).
Fish as food. Fish are not nutritionally inferior to meat animals and is a source of proteins, fats, vitamins (A, D, etc.), a set of essential trace elements (zinc, iodine, etc.) and minerals, especially calcium and phosphorus, which are contained in it to the body in a favorable ratio. The content of digestible nutrients in the edible parts of certain fish and their calorie content in the table.
Content of protein and fat and calorie content of the edible part of fish Product name Content in g per 100 g Calories (large) per 100 g edible portion of the product of the product proteins fats
Beluga gutted, headless
Russian sturgeon drawn, without heads
Stellate gutted, headless
Ordinary fish fish:
Carp pond intact
Bream average intact
Cod gutted, headless
Redfish small, intact
Atlantic herring intact, spring
Pacific herring intact, spring
The chemical composition of fish is not constant and varies depending on the food resources, the time of year, etc. Other indicators alimentary values characterized sturgeon. On the fat content of fish is divided into fat, high-fat and skinny. Most lean fish are cod, perch and pike.
Proteins of fish are high in amino acids such as methionine and lysine, tryptophan and arginine, necessary for growth and development. Fat fish have high biological activity. Fish oil, particularly fat Liver is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, including essential arachidonic acid, and vitamins A and D2: 1 g of fish oil contains health Vitamin A 350 ME (International Units) of vitamin D2 and 30 ME (see Medical fat). Fish meat contains small amounts of vitamin B.
Fish relates to perishable products (see), requiring strict compliance with the sanitary regime during storage, transport and distribution. This is due to the structure of its tissues and organs. Location along the intestine casing, lack of dense connective intermuscular membranes, mucus on the surface of fresh fish, high humidity and soft tissues of the structure contribute to the development of micro-organisms and their rapid spread in the muscle tissue from the surface as well as on the part of the intestine. The basic condition for good quality fish is immediate cooling after harvest and its continued existence in a refrigerated (frozen) form. It uses a special court — refrigerators. In addition, part of the catch is processed immediately (salting, canning, etc.) on special courts-fish factories that accompany the fishing fleet. Recycled fish require special attention hot smoked fish.
The shelf life of hot-smoked fish is strictly limited. In the distribution network at a temperature of 8 ° storage of fish smoked no more than 72 hours.
In violation of sanitary regime of processing, storage and marketing of fish can cause food poisoning. Therefore, sanitation measures at all stages of advancement fish the consumer should be particularly stringent. Much attention is being paid to the continuity of the cooling on the bases and in the trade network, the lack of signs of deterioration in the health status of storage, processing plants and fish trade.