Bat Forest

Status. Migratory, widely distributed species.

Distribution. In the area includes all of South and Central Europe, spreading from the West of France to the Urals, the Caucasus, northern Iran, and inhabit the south-eastern Mediterranean. In Russia, many in the forest and forest-steppe regions of European, Middle and Southern Urals, North Caucasus and the Volga region N.. In the forest-steppe part of the Right Bank is one of the numerous and widespread species of bats. In the Volga gets on woodland valley. Volga, along the forested floodplains of small rivers and irrigation canals. Here the degree of urbofilnosti increasing: most settlements confined to man-made objects, most often to the residential buildings of the person.

Collectible fees from the Saratov region on this type are quite extensive, they are represented in the collections of the Zoological Museum, not only of the Saratov State University (Zav'yalov et al, 2002 a), and other museums in the country, in particular the Department of Zoology and Ecology, Penza State Pedagogical University (Ilyin et al, 1998a). His meetings recorded in Turka (near the village. Turks), Petrovsky (Petrovsk) Atkarsk (around with. Lakeside) Novoburasskogo (around with. Irinovka), market-Karabulak (around with. Alekseevka) Balashov (around with. Pads) areas (arrows, Ilyin, 1990), and the Resurrection (p. Shevyrevka and Keys) and Khvalynskoye (near villages Oak Guy and Alekseevka) regions. There are findings of bats in urban Volsk and Saratov. In the Volga meets the Rivne (settlements Volga and Yablonovka) Dergachevsky (village October), St. Petersburg (village Agathius-tem) (arrows, Ilyin, 1990) and Krasnokutsk (floodplain. Eruslan) areas, as well as in Pugachev (Bazhanov, 1930). Analysis of the geography of collection fees indicates dwelling bats in a. Dyakovka Krasnokutsk area (25/07/1993), the atakzhe within Saratov (10.07.1994 g.)

Number. Abundant species. Percentage forest bat in the fee is 8.16% of the place of occurrence, and about 3.8% of extracted or recorded species. By the first measure he took first place in the region. The number of bat in the Volga steppe significantly lower than in the right-bank areas.

A brief description. Body length of 46-58 mm, forearm 33-37 mm, weight 5 — '12 ear larger than the previous species. The inner edge of the tragus line and the outer edge of the contour arched. Fourth metakarpalnaya bone 1-1.5 mm shorter than the third and 1-1.5 longer than fifth. The fur is of medium length, color reddish brown back, belly — grayish-yellow. Male sexual organ to 5 mm.

Habitats. It occurs in both natural and urban habitats. At the same time can be attributed to the typical forest species, inhabit the floodplain and watershed forests. In the latter type of habitats are much rarer. It prefers sparse areas, edges or edge. Most summer finds in this region recorded in the settlements and in close proximity to the banks of rivers with large wooded floodplains. Feeding, flying forest edges, forest roads, over a small clearing on the edge of the forest and meadows. In communities adheres poorly lit streets bordering the forest, park or gardens. Settles in natural shelters, and in the buildings of the person.

Especially biology. In reproductive areas in the spring there is usually at the end of April. The first is obviously the females arrive, and after 2-3 weeks — males. Pregnant females after flying form brood colonies, most often confined to the right bank of the region to the hollow of a tree with a slit-like notch. Meeting single females or small groups of them in the spring and early summer in other shelters (eg, peeled the bark), according to PP Rifle and VY Ilyin (1990), are only possible in the prenatal period. In the Volga steppe location brood colonies in the absence of suitable natural shelters, usually associated with buildings of man, where bats take up residence under a tin roof sheathing and domes, the walls of the crate with the door trims and shutters, etc. The males are solitary, the range of their shelters is quite wide, for animals found peeled bark of trees, in hollows, for peeled plaster under roofing iron, under slate roofs, in the gaps between the concrete slabs of highway bridges and other shelters may then be placed on the low height above the ground in the floodplain. Eruslan around with. Dyakovka Krasnokutsk area in a forest near the former pioneer camp "Flight" found a single male elm bark peeled for only 1.2 m from the ground.

Bat colonies in numbers are relatively large (100 or more adult animals), a significant proportion of the settlements is mixed when rukorylye live with bat-dwarfs Mediterranean bat, Myotis Brandt and others female bears one to three cubs most two, the share of barren females accounting for up to 3.5% (arrow, Ilyin, 1990). Young marked the peak birth in mid-June.

Lactation lasts until the last decade of June — the first of July. During this period, most of the females are concentrated in the brood shelters, such clusters is quite hard to find, so, obviously, collection fees from the Saratov region, confined to a specified period, is extremely scarce. Animals frequent meetings after leaving the young and the redistribution of females in the territory, where their distribution becomes more uniform. At this time, the observations VY Ilyin (1990 b) in the Right Bank, the females are combined in molting group 4-25 individuals; moulting period lasts 50-55 days and lasts till 20th of August.

Since that time, or even a little earlier — the last decade of July (arrow, Ilyin, 1990) begins rut, adult animals observed in the harem groups of 7-15 animals of different sex ratio. Ghosn continues to the first days of September, in the same period, adult bats leave the territory of the region. Young animals are not observed in the reproductive habitats since 20th of August, indicating their earlier departure. Hibernates neotopyr forest in southern latitudes, making twice-yearly seasonal migration to breeding sites and back. Mass species feeds mainly on the order Diptera (kulitsidy, Chiron, foreign ministries, midges, daddy-long-legs) and small Lepidoptera. Maximum known lifespan is 11 years (Schober, Grimmberger, 1998), and the maximum known distance flights — 1905 km (Petersons, 1990).

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