Fluorosis

Fluorosis (Synonym Cryolite disease) – a chronic disease bone that develops with prolonged excessive intake of fluorine and its compounds. The cause of dental fluorosis may be elevated fluoride in drinking water, the consumption of food contaminated with fluoride, inhalation of dust containing fluorine and its compounds. Disease detected mainly in people a long time working with fluorides (see Fluorine).
Once in the stomach, fluoride dissolved gastric juices are absorbed and enter the blood. Then salt of hydrofluoric acid circulating in the blood begin to be delayed in the skeleton and teeth. As a result, the soluble calcium compounds contained in the bones, joints replaced insoluble calcium fluoride, calcium fluoride, namely (CaF2), and eventually the process of hardening of the bone tissue.
As the prevalence and severity of lesions are 3 stages of the disease. Clinical signs depend on the stage. In the first and second stages of the disease the patients, while continuing to work, complain of stiffness, blurred pain in the spine and large joints. For the third stage, characterized by a considerable stiffness of spine and extremities. In a study of the early stages can be detected by changes in the enamel of the teeth in the form of stripes, spots, blotches, thickening of bone protrusions, elevated levels of fluoride in urine.
For radiographic bone fluorosis is characterized by the development of osteosclerosis (see). In stage I of the disease is detected in osteosclerosis sternum, ribs, vertebrae, pelvis, in II – extends to the long bones, in the III – along with a massive osteosclerosis defined thickening of the bones and calcification of ligaments.
In identifying the signs of fluorosis patient should be removed from working with fluorides and symptomatic treatment.
After the elimination of a long contact time with fluorine osteosclerosis marked decrease while preserving deformations of surfaces of bone and calcification of ligaments. In the prevention of dental fluorosis important place hygienic measures to improve working conditions (sealing of production equipment, proper ventilation, etc.), providing safe water, and periodic medical examinations, including X-ray examination of the skeleton.
Russia has a developed system of preventive measures fluorosis rare.

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