Orientation on local features

ORIENTATION FOR THE STARS
Cloudless night side of the horizon is most easily identified by the North Star, always pointing in the direction to the north with an accuracy of 1 °. To find in the sky this star located in the constellation Ursa Minor, it is necessary to find the Big Dipper, which is represented in the form of a huge, well-marked bucket of seven bright, far removed from each other stars. If the two stars at the end bucket draw an imaginary straight line, and the distance between them to defer on this line 5 times, at the end of the last segment will be visible star is soft — this is Polaris (the first star of the Little Dipper handle bucket). In the southern hemisphere the direction to the south may be the constellation Southern Cross — four bright stars in the form of a cross, tilted to one side. From the base of the long axis of the cross to mentally lay distance of 4 times the length of the Cross and find imaginary point — it will serve as the direction of the south. A true Southern Cross not to be confused with the false, which has 5 stars, less bright and more distant from each other than in the truth. To better define the South Pole are two stars-pointers to the left of the Southern Cross. Connecting them imaginary line through its center of the perpendicular, which continue to the intersection with a line drawn from the Southern Cross. Intersection point is exactly in the south.
AROUND ON THE MOON
With a weak clouds, when the North Star is not visible, but well distinguishable Luna side of the horizon can be defined by it, but accuracy will be lower. For an approximate guide, we may assume that the moon is in the following phases. Since the focus is necessary and at other times, the direction of the horizon can be identified by the Moon and watch. At the full moon can be determined by the horizon as the sun and the clock, and the moon is taken for the Sun. In other phases of the moon to introduce an amendment to the countdown on the clock. This is done so. Establish the waxing moon or decrease estimated by eye as six fractions radius of the Moon is illuminated part of its drive. If the decline of the moon, by the indication that the clock is added to the amount of hours, as six fractions radius of the illuminated part of the disk. If the moon comes, the testimony of the time this number is subtracted. Clock showing time with the amendment sent to the Moon. In this case, the moon should be sent not the hour hand, and then dividing by the watch dial, which corresponds to the calculated hour. The angle between this direction and the number 1 on the dial is divided in half. It will be about the direction of the south. Example. Covered the left side of the moon: a) the moon is waning, therefore, the importance of the amendment is added to the reading of the clock, and b) the illuminated part of the disk is 3/6 the radius of the moon, so the amendment — 3:00 c) the 20 + hours of 3:00 correction = 23 hours, and d) to turn the clock number 11 in the direction of the moon, and the angle between the numbers 11 and 1 split in half. Bisector indicate the direction to the south.
AROUND IN THE SUN
In northern latitudes during summer nights who came from near the Sun to the north side of the horizon the sky is the bright, southern — darker. The highest position of the sun is determined by the length of the shortest shadow, corresponding noon, and its direction in the northern hemisphere points north. This is true only between the North Pole and the tropic. Rule applies in the following cases: a) when the sun is at its zenith (the shadow at the base of the object), and b) at the equator, where the noon shadow is north for six months (from 24 September to 20 March) and six months in the south (from March 21 to 23 September), and c) in the latitudes between the equator and the tropics, where the shadow also changes on the board. In the southern hemisphere, on the contrary, the shadow points to the south. Relative accuracy side of the horizon can be identified by the Sun with a watch. For this, his watch horizontally, turn it so that the hour hand toward the sun. In this case, the bisector of the angle between the hour hand and the direction of the figure 12 on the dial to the south. Keep in mind that you have to share to noon angle on the dial, which is the hour hand should go up to 12 hours, and in the afternoon — the angle that it was after 12 hours. This method gives a relatively correct orientation results in the northern part and mid-latitudes, especially in winter, less accurately — in spring and autumn, summer, the same error in orientation can be up to 25 °. In southern latitudes, where the summer sun is high, the accuracy of orientation is less, and the use of this method was not recommended.
DEFINITION the horizon on the plants and animals
Flora and fauna characteristic of some of the features that can be used to determine the horizon. However, the orientation on the plants and animals is less reliable than simply astronomical techniques, so you can use them only in extreme cases, such as on a cloudy day, when no one can see no sun, no stars. Many techniques orientation widely known, although they are based on misconceptions. For example, we often hear and read that the trees on the south side of the crown more lavish than the north, and it may indicate the horizon. In fact, the branches of trees in the forest evolve toward free space, and not to the south. Even the stand-alone configuration tree crown depends largely on the direction of the prevailing winds and other causes. True, there are cases when the above sign is justified. In some areas of the Southern Urals have seen a birch crowns were especially lush just to the south. But, of course, to make such observations of general conclusions should not be. Another common misconception is related to the imaginary possibility of orientation to the annual rings of forest growth on the stumps of trees felled. These features can not be used, since the formation of growth rings entirely depends on the growth of plants. It is believed that these rings are wider in the south than in the north, but in fact many observations do not show this pattern. It turns out that the width of the rings depends entirely on a number of factors (eg, wind direction) and uneven not only horizontally but also vertically. Change the location of tree rings can be seen when sawing wood at different heights from the ground. We now turn to a more reliable way of orientation on plants. Moss and lichen on the bark of trees, focused primarily on the north side. Comparing a few trees, this feature can be quite accurately determine the line of the north — south. The desire of mosses and lichens grow in the shade can be used to guide not only trees, but also old wooden structures, large stones, rocks, etc. On all these subjects mosses and lichens grow mainly in the north. Another good guide can serve as tree bark, which is usually on the north side is rougher and darker than the south. This is especially well seen on birch. But this feature can be used. Observing the color of the cortex is not a single tree, but several. After rain pine trunks usually turn black from the north. This is caused by the fact that the bark of pine developed secondary thin crust that formed before, on the shady side of the trunk and on it goes higher than in the south. Cork in the rain swells and darkens. If there is no rain, and the weather is hot, the pine and spruce, and in this case can serve as a guide. We need only look closely at which side of the trunk produces more resin. This party is always the south. We need to pay attention to the grass, which in the spring on the northern outskirts of the glades more dense than the southern. If you take the standing stumps, trees, large rocks, here, on the contrary, the grass grows thicker to the south of them, and from the north kept longer fresh in the hot season. Study habits of animals often provides interesting material for orientation, although it still requires a more cautious approach than when navigating over the plants. Here is some information regarding the behavior of animals. Ants make their homes almost always to the south of the nearest trees, stumps and brush. The south side of the nest more gentle than the north. Steppe bees build their homes from a very durable material. Their nests are placed on rocks or on the walls, always facing south, similar to the clumps of dirt, discarded wheels of carts and horses' hooves. Three-toed gulls, kittiwakes, or to nest on the cliffs with numerous flocks, and their nests are always located in the western and north-western shores of the islands.
DEFINITION the horizon in the construction of
Various buildings, in some cases, can also serve as a good benchmark. This is mainly religious buildings: churches, mosques, synagogues, and others that are in accordance with the laws of religion were based pretty strictly oriented to the horizon. Altars and chapels Orthodox churches facing east, and the bell tower — to the west. A trailing edge of the bottom of the cross on the dome facing south, raised — to the north. Altars Lutheran churches are not but to the east, and the bell tower — to the west. Altars of Catholic churches facing west. Pagodas, pagodas, Buddhist monasteries facade faces south. Exits from the yurts also face the south. When orientation is useful to know some of the features: — when the sun is behind the man — distance stolen, in the eyes — it seems bigger than it actually is — the terrain, visible or partially visible observer conceal the distance — when viewed from the top down objects appear further, and under the supervision of the bottom up (to the top of the mountain or hill) — closer. Once you have identified the horizon, we must remember the direction in which you move, which way you were going, which side was the sun. Slowly, slowly, you will surely be able to recall the approximate route of your movement. The picture will not be exact, but the approximate direction you set. Suppose it turns southeast. Then the general direction of your movement should be northwest. But there are situations when a rainy day in the thick forest has not been possible to establish the horizon. What to do in that case? It is best to go straight, will not turning. Just right until you reach the edge of the forest, roads, river banks. At the edge is easier to navigate on the surrounding area. The road always leads you to the village, where you can learn how to find the nearest way to the right place, and where, if necessary you can always relax and get help. And the bank of the river, too, will take you to the village, to the bridge, to the fishermen. And a few recommendations: — Avoid marshy and swampy places, dense spruce and aspen forests: they focus especially hard — listen to the noises (do it best not to go, and stop). Hearing the distant voices, the sounds of moving vehicles, mooing cattle, change direction, but remember the forest echo and the fact that the forest sometimes conceals and distorts the sound. But the most important advice: never go hiking in unfamiliar territory alone or with a newcomer to the area. Do not rely on your "natural born talent" orientation — it could easily fail. Experience suggests that even experienced people sometimes wander for hours in search of the right way in a strange forest, even if it is far from population centers.
DEFINITION the horizon in relief, soil, wind and snow
Soil moisture around the large stones, separate buildings, stump serves as a reference point — in the summer soil is more moisturized from the north of these subjects than in the south. Side of the horizon can be found at the prevailing winds in the area, if you know their direction. In the deserts of the direction of the prevailing winds can be judged by their impact on legkorazrushayuschiesya rocks: sandstone, limestone, loess, etc. The wind in these rocks are often formed multiple parallel grooves separated by sharp ridges. On the surface of the Libyan desert plateau such furrows vyshlifovannye sand, reach a depth of 1 meter and elongated in the direction of the prevailing wind from the north to the south. One of the signs by which you can determine the direction of the prevailing winds in the area — the state of the vegetation on the mountain slopes. On the windward slopes, more freezing in the winter, the plants tend to be tilted, thus indicating the direction of the prevailing winds. The predominance of a particular wind direction and also indicate flagoobraznye crown. In the sandy desert wind creates unique forms of relief — dunes and dunes. Undulating dunes are accumulations of sand in the shape of a crescent. The convex part is always facing the wind. Downwind dune slopes much steeper than the windward, and the edges are extended in the form of horns with the wind. Dune — low sand ridges, usually with no steep slopes and elongated perpendicular to the wind direction. Windward slopes of dunes and dune sealed. They are often formed sand ripples in the form of parallel ridges. Leeward slopes crumbling, friable. Snow around the rocks, big rocks, stumps melts faster in the south. In the ravines, gullies, pits it quickly melts in the north, because the southern edge of the grooves are not exposed to direct rays of the sun falling from the south. On the southern slopes of the mountains and hills education thaw is faster than a steep slope. At the northern edge of the forest soil is freed from the snow sometimes for 10-15 days later than in the south. In March — April, around the trunks of single trees and stumps in the snow formed wells, extended to the south. Spring on the slopes facing the sun during the melting of snow forms elongated sub tabs — "spikes", separated by grooves, open part of which faces south. Guidance to the above described on various tracks of the wind on the rocks, soil and plants. Defining the horizon directly in the wind is only possible in areas where its direction for a long time is constant.

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