Role of reversible oxidation in the mechanism of biological action of phenols-1

The ramifications of degenerate branching reactions are such that the effectiveness of the intervention in their flow is highly dependent on the time of intervention. On the exponential stage of the process to achieve the effect of braking, you need to enter a lot of material-inhibitor (from Latin inhibitio — braking). In the induction period is enough to the smallest of the inhibitor to prevent the yield of the reaction in the exponential phase. That is exactly what are phenolic antioxidants.
But it is well known that the interaction of the radical with a neutral molecule, a new molecule and a new radical:
R1 + R2H> R1H + R2
Consequently, the molecule phenolic inhibitor, neutralizing and inactivating radical involved in the oxidation reaction, she turns into a radical inhibitor — semiquinone or phenoxyl (aroxyl), the radical
R + HIn> RH + In
But once instead of one radical arise, the matter, it would seem, does not change. Real antioxidant effect was observed only in the event that the newly formed radical inhibitor is a low energy, is relatively stable and does not continue the chain process. Such are the semiquinone radicals of phenolic inhibitors. This is a relatively long-lived and low-active radicals. The formation of each of them by using phenolic antioxidants means loss of one of the chains svobodporadikalnogo oxidation and, therefore, a general slowdown in the process. If phenolic inhibitor from the beginning to the present matter, needs to be protected from oxidation (whether biological membrane or whole cell, tissue or organ of the human body or one of perishable products — lard or vegetable oil, milk or meat), the desired effect can be achieved by confining all 0.01-0.02% of the additive. Then there is the number of vitamin E — tocopherol in adipose tissue lipid biomembranes, in corn oil, etc. In such a relationship, and added artificial phenolic antioxidants to fats, subject to more or less long-term storage.
In the above equations semiquinone radical inhibitor acts as an end product inhibition, kill chain. But you can imagine along with this and other opportunities. Phenoxyl radical can directly interact with the oxidative radical, "payment" for the disappearance of two radicals can be their connection to a single molecule. Finally, and semiquinone radicals, and quinones are formed, with a higher reactivity than the original recovered phenols, can have quite a strong and diverse effects on cell structure, the enzyme proteins and nucleic acids, to intervene in the exchange reactions.
Anyway, based on the various manifestations of the biological activity of phenolic compounds and their transformations in plants and animals is resulting from the chemical structure of their propensity to reversible oxidation.

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