TaigaForests from space observation confirms that a number of important properties for Humanity "Green Ocean" Taiga is comparable to the world's oceans. This comparison is based not only on size but also on the scale of the impact on the ecology of entire regions, the amount of reserves of organic matter, which is interested in using people.

"The value of the forest to maintain the balance of the ocean environment and the assessment of its condition, the importance of forests to the national economy and prosperity can not be expressed in any price scale, — the member of the Academy of Sciences, director of the Institute of Forest and Wood behalf Sukachev Siberian Branch of the USSR, A. Isaev, -, respectively, and use them requires extreme care and responsibility. "

It is no coincidence bamovtsam Siberian scientists wrote: "The nature of the areas cut by the track, fragile and unstable. Soils are ephemeral, especially easy to erosion. Plants and animals in the alpine zone at hodyatsya, so to speak, at the limit of existence. Forests grow very slowly. If you cut trunk of the tree, the tree rings on it can be considered only in the lens. If the forest destroyed, it will be restored centuries. At the same time, natural combination of zone very, very appropriate. elfin cedar, for example — it is the original poluderevo-shrub, not only provides rich food and a safe haven for many animals, but also regulates the drain. Thickets him like a coat, cover the hillsides, retain sediments and determine the uniformity of their stock. When elfin cedar burns (and it is sensitive to the fire, as oiled hemp), the soil itself disappears and is produced in the full sense of the lunar landscape.

Nature areas through which the trail BAM, less than any other area in the world, is familiar with human activities. She is a virgin and pure. And now because of the nationwide grand construction project was time to make long-term forecasts of our relationship with nature is transfigured areas. "

Siberian taiga — the unique "factory" of oxygen, a giant filter ensures clean air area of not only our country, but the whole of the Northern Hemisphere ….

In ancient times, dense forest, dark taiga — roadless, mosquito, inhabited by wild animals — people seemed grim and hostile force. Had to fight them hand to hand, with an ax, handsaw so the fire. But even then, people of Russia advanced warning of the terrible consequences of careless attitude towards the forest and saw a walking mistake imaginary idea of "inexhaustible" Russian forest.

Unfortunately, the guidance of scientists and public calls have not been taken to heart by all builders, and sometimes in their case, to look without bitterness. Therefore, Amur Oblast Council of All-Russian Society for the Protection of Nature called on bamovtsam saying: "Builders of the Baikal-Amur Mainline, You're driving people's construction over a large area of virgin taiga. Avoid unnecessary felling timber. Protect flora and fauna. Use natural resources prudently, by thriftily. "

Green areas of Siberia are reliable guardians and protectors of the natural environment, especially in mountainous areas, where the usual "under the guise of" trees grow mosses and shrubs that "fear" the soil from erosion and run-off, as well as prevent the formation of avalanches.

In the mountains of Transbaikalia relationship forests and the environment is very unstable, and its violation may produce consequences that are eliminated will be very difficult or almost impossible.

Known value of the Siberian and Far Eastern cedar forests. Walnut, furs, oleoresin, wild fruits, berries, medicinal and industrial raw materials — is part of what can give this unique area. More than 70 percent of cedar grows in the mountainous regions, where most of the starts of large rivers of Siberia and the Far East. They have this special ecological, soil and water control value.

Creation of clusters in the taiga regions necessitates a drastic change in environmental conditions. Life itself confronts forest science with a number of tasks that require fundamentally new methods of investigation of the taiga forests, rapid assessment of their condition. Developing the green expanses of the region, to find the optimal combination of conservation, and in many cases enhance water conservation, soil conservation, sanitation and other useful properties of vegetation.

The most promising area for the development of the forest industry extends from the Lena River to Lake Baikal. It is common larch and accumulated considerable stocks of pine. Larch forests account for almost 40 percent of the total area of green spaces. Very productive for development and forest areas in rivers Zeya Selemdzha and on to the Amur. Stocks larch from the Yenisei to the Sea of Okhotsk is truly majestic. However, in areas of the eastern coast of Lake Baikal to the Zeya basin centered unproductive larch forests, passing into the woodlands.

The rivers and lakes of the region, in which, it would seem, "so many" fish extremely malokormny. It's cold all year round, and the fish multiplies very slowly. Devastate such water — it briefly, but wait permanent sustainable catch then do not have to.

Rich and diverse fauna of forests. Many animals have commercial value (protein, Siberian weasel, ermine, fox, sable). Animals and birds in some places a lot, but only for as long as there is no hunting. Without the strictest protection of game animals will quickly undermined, animals and birds will become rare. Consequences of careless handling of it can be serious.

"… You can use nature — said in a report at the XXV Congress of the CPSU Leonid Brezhnev — differently. Can — and human history knows many examples — reserve the barren, lifeless, hostile to man space. But you can and necessary, comrades, ennobling nature to help nature fully reveals its vitality. There is a simple, well-known to all the expression "blooming land." So we call earth, where knowledge and experience of people, their affection, their love of nature really work wonders. This our, the socialist path. "

By decision of the XXV Congress of the CPSU, to this end: the measures to preserve the environment allocated big money — about 11 billion rubles passed legislation aimed at protecting nature, the state plan for the development of the national economy of the USSR for 1976-1980 includes targets for the implementation of six special complex scientific and technical programs to implement effective methods and systems for mining and manufacturing processes that minimize hazardous waste. We can be proud that raised to the rank of the Constitution — the basic law of our state — items such as 18 — "In the interests of present and future generations in the Soviet Union is taking the necessary measures to protect and make scientific, rational use of land and its mineral and water resources, flora and fauna, to preserve the purity of air and water, ensure reproduction of natural wealth, and improve the human environment "and 67 -" Citizens of the USSR are obliged to protect nature and conserve its riches. "

Soviet Union — the richest country in the world forest. 80 percent of our forests is of the most valuable softwood. Of the three million hectares of forest on Earth over one billion hectares is located in the USSR. This is about 34 percent of the world's forest area.

Computes the area of forest, accounting for any and all agencies and organizations (reserves, schools, etc.), the collective farms and state farms and on reserve lands, 1 billion 237 million hectares. In this area is covered by forest 747 million hectares, or 60.4 percent, of which 626 million hectares is the main state forest fund, which the country has both a source for extracting timber as an object for protection from water and wind erosion as health and fitness factor. They account for 50.6 percent of the entire area, unreserved forest reserve of the country.

Most wooded area in the country is in the Russian Federation: its forest coverage is 41.4 percent. It appears to many impassable Siberia and endless taiga. But in fact the territory of its regions and edges evenly covered in forest, with stands of varying quality. To the south of the main Siberian railway up to the Krasnoyarsk forest is almost there. Just south of the Altai region, Gorno-Altai Autonomous Region, in the basin of the Biya and Katun and further east along the tributaries of the upper reaches of the Yenisei River and on the ridges of the Western Sayan mountain forests begin. Wooded Novosibirsk and Omsk regions is 20 and 27 percent, the Altai region — 25 per cent, the Kurgan region — 17 per cent.

All of East Siberia and the Far East — wooded, but here with the advance north sharply stand density.

Polar forest on the Taimyr Peninsula — a "larch woodlands" — unsightly trees gnarled larches height of 5-7 meters and a thickness of 10-15 cm with sparse branches are rare, some distance from each other. "Ary-Mas" ("Forest Island", "The Island of the forest", "Prodigal Son taiga") is a timber in the form of the island, a shelter in the vast tundra of 72 degrees north latitude? It is the world's northernmost forest. Its origin is not yet understood. Maybe it's the old balance, "prehistoric" forests?

Also known for the famous "Hadytinsky phenomenon" in the tundra of Yamal, where in contrast to the natural forest "Ary-Mas" was nurtured by human hands woods, which here and could not have dreamed.

Main species diversity of our forests is very abundant. In our state are about 20,000 species of plants, of which no more than 3.5 thousand species found in the European part.

The main tree species (at the official records of the forest fund) are the six conifers — pine, spruce, fir, larch, cedar and juniper. They cover an area of 490 million hectares.

Over ten hardwoods — oak, beech, hornbeam, ash, maple, some elm, birch, stone, Haloxylon, acacia — less common, and the area covered by them is equal to 24 million hectares.

Softwood trees — birch, aspen and various types of poplar, alder (black and gray), linden, willow tree — growing on area of 112 million hectares. In a different mixture of these rocks are a major forest reserve of the country.

Forests for industrial logging, refer to the third group. They occupy 78 percent of the total forest area. Here, a category reserved forests, the operation of which is expected no earlier than 20 years. The forest area reserved forests is 235 million hectares. They are located on the Ob River north of the Khanty-Mansiysk, in the basins of the Taz and Pura, north of the river beds of the Lower Tunguska and Viljui and north-east of the river Aldan permafrost. Reserve forests sparse, composed of larch and fir trees, and the harsh climate of the Siberian north of the vast majority of them pretty poor quality. It allowed clearcutting.

The forests in the country are state property, public property. It is no coincidence the first Soviet laws on forests, adopted on 27 May 1918 and signed by VI Lenin stated: that "Every citizen must by all means available to protect forests from fires, Spend, damage, insect attack, and so on and take all steps to caring for the good of all-national and possibly rationalize the obtained timber. "

Forest and its wildlife — a whole complex and a variety of "body" — the components: trees and shrubs, grasses and mosses, fungi, lichens, insects, birds, animals and reptiles, bacteria and viruses that are closely related to each other, constitute the life of the forest and for him to be in the response each.

The life of a virgin forest, untouched by man, is in a strictly prescribed order for millennia. Laws of forest life without repentance. All forest tree species — is wild plants, each with only her inherent characteristics, settles within certain climatic and soil conditions, as the most light-requiring and requiring more space for yourself is pine, spruce content with 87 percent of this area, beech — 79 percent, and the fir — just 63 percent.

The older the wood, the more it undergrowth, the better it performs its natural functions, so the 150-year-old pine tree, a 120-year-old spruce or 60-year-old birch are not in these woods overmature.

Multilateral cooperation in forest trees is already stable compound of trees. If any part of the forest area affected by fire or windfall, then it must be through a period of time will be planted seeds to nearby trees.

Mixing different types of trees, their combination with herbaceous vegetation, topography gives its shape to different woods, and they therefore are of a different aesthetic perception.

Polyphony and harmonious bird singing, gorgeous outfits bor birds and animals, rich in ozone fresh air, the healing power of trees and berries, mushrooms and herbs create a charming impression and sometimes the sources are beautiful creations.

Good to go and see how the day everything changes in colors and sounds! Flying birds, butterflies, beetles, flowers open and close. And how wonderful and great to be able to cook dinner on a fire, sleep in a tent or on a spruce tree, make a raft to find edible plants and herbs!

His best paintings dedicated forest great Russian painter Ivan Shishkin. In his series of paintings "Morning in a Pine Forest", "Pine Forest", "Ship Grove", "Pines, lit by the sun" … — Live in our forests, mighty and beautiful.

Imagining themselves in the far woods, in his quiet and remote corners, Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky works such as: "Bless you forests", "It was in early spring," "The Seasons." Fourth Symphony, and others.

It must be noted declaration of love to the Russian forest Soviet writer Leonid Leonov Maksimovic, author of the famous novel "Russian Forest", "It would be ungrateful not to name and timber among educators and the few patrons of our people … Wood has taught them caution, observation, diligence and the heavy, hard tread which Russian always go to the goal! "

Deserve attention and encouragement of paintings devoted taiga forest, the exhibited artists of the RSFSR in 1977: S. Podlaskie series "BAM" — "Road to give", "BAM", "Taiga Troopers"; VM Formozov — "Backwoods" from the series "Russian Forest" and L. Brodsky — "Spring has come."

Of course, you can not only admire the forest and cut down trees. But great responsibility chopping wood. He must know and take into account the laws of life, it is reasonable to use the gifts of the forest harvest ripe cornfields.

Forests are very different and need to be able to distinguish them. "Forestry — the science, multiplied by art because it has to do with living things — says forester SA Hlatin. Foresters know life of the forest in all its complexity, know all the characteristics of each forest plot. As no two people are alike, so not in the nature and two identical forest plots, each of them needs an individual approach to cultivate good forest. "

Taiga — is the greatest on earth forest, testifying not on the composition of rocks, and the place of its location. This is — any forest in Siberia. It brings together a wide variety of forest types, which differ from each other in the dominant tree species, stand on the structure and the nature of land cover under the canopy formed by the stunted plants. Feel deeply huge expanses of green taiga can, when viewed from the mountain or in the air.


Fig. 7. Cedar taiga. Lower Elovka River basin Mensah, Western Transbaikalia.

In the realm of barbed taiga pine needles, pine, fir and spruce damp, dark and dull. It smells rotten and stagnant water. Mammals and birds are hidden and concealed. Only a careful shadow slip into more, breaking the silence and solitude. Immensity of the Siberian forest and unexplored vistas generate a representation of the severity of wildness, gloom and mystery of the word "taiga". If you say, "spruce-fir taiga grim", the larch — dreary, especially in autumn, when the needles turn yellow and fall off (Fig. 7).

Today Taiga accept new people with good intentions and creative is becoming more accessible, and therefore it must be good to know, because it needs a gentle caring person.

South of the tundra in the whole vast territory of Siberia occupied taiga. Depending on the tree species composition and density of the forest with the distinguished dark coniferous taiga forest stands are formed by spruce, fir and related rocks, sometimes Siberian cedar, and coniferous taiga, with the dominance of larch and pine.

On the border with pine and spruce forest tundra give way to scrubby spruce and birch elfin. Taiga in the north is the same variety of tree species, highly productive plantations (pine, spruce, birch). It features a pronounced latitudinal and vertical zoning.

The extreme north-east of Siberia forest has. In Kamchatka taiga occupies two small tracts north of Petropavlovsk.

The southern boundary of the taiga took place in European Russia from the Gulf to the east-north-east of the Urals, it skirted the south and mates on, to the Ob in Siberia, with the northern boundary of the steppes. Taiga seized east mountains, where it was called "Black", from the Altai to the Amur and Ussuri.

Prilenskaya of the southern taiga of central Siberia, as the entire southern taiga, and been subjected to intensive human intervention. In connection with this, in part, due to natural factors strip of southern taiga feels significant impact steppe.

In deep-old trade routes here nomadic hunters, immediately cleared meadows ranchers in the valleys were laid first tillage. Of the valleys were forest fires, helps a person to clear the taiga. Living natural resources of the upper Lena now not what they were before the invasion of devastating fires in the taiga.

Southern taiga in the area has significant reserves "virgin land." Especially as the expected sharp increase in population in the upper Lena to the discovery of oil fields and the construction of the Baikal-Amur Railway.

Throughout the southern taiga of Central Siberia from the Yenisei River to Lake Baikal and the Sayan Mountains to the Stony Tunguska ends unified process of disappearance of dark coniferous taiga and its replacement by coniferous forests. The time is approaching when the spruce-pine-fir and spruce-fir forests will last Baikal region, as it will take on shape-steppe, or rather the larch and pine-birch-aspen Lesopolye.

Within Transbaikalia crossed diverse features of vegetation typical of, first, the central Siberia, Lena region, the Altai-Sayan system, and secondly, the Okhotsk coast, and, third, the mountain-steppe Daura-Mongolia. Here are the limits of distribution of tree species as larch and Daurian.

In Western Siberia dominated spruce, fir and Siberian pine and Siberian larch, Eastern Siberia and the other is characterized by tree species, including larch. The boundary between the Western and Eastern Siberia, Nikolai Kuznetsov offered to conditionally line that coincides with the boundary between the areas of distribution and Dahurian Siberian larch.

For hundreds of years people are some wooden structures in the Urals and Siberia, made of larch. 400-500 years is a stretch larch as internal woodwork cathedrals of the Moscow Kremlin and St. Basil's Cathedral.

"The Tree of Eternity" expresses strength and stability in the Maritime stairs in Odessa, It made the doors and windows of the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg. Canals, dams, locks, mills and other waterworks XVII-XVIII centuries, is still not lose the strength and beauty.

Nowadays, in the era of great changes of nature by man, especially the division of the territory to become the character of the wood (or wood) vegetation and conditions of its existence, that is forest growth zoning, that is, zonal and provincial forest areas dismemberment of the USSR into zones and subzones ( Fig. 8).


Fig. 8. The division of the territory of the USSR in the silvicultural provincial SF Kurnaevu (listed alphabetical index): CE — Central, TFR — Skandipavsko-Russian, CRV — East of the Russian plain, Ur — Urals, KAB — West-Siberian, TBM — Tuva-Buryat -Mongolian, PRS — Central Siberia, VSB — the East Siberian, OHM — Okhotsk-Manchurian, SCK — Sakhalin-Kuril, B — The Black Sea, T — Girkan, NC — tundra and the Norwegian coast of the Kola Peninsula, BNZ — tundra shores of the White Sea, the Czech Bay and the New Earth, BZ — Bolshezemelskaya tundra, PT — Yamal-Gydanskaya tundra, TN — Taimyr tundra. VSCH — tundra Laptev Sea coast. East Siberian and Chukchi Seas, BG — Berenginskaya Tundra, QC — Kurilsk Kamchatka (prairie region), LC — West Kazakhstan (province steppes of western Kazakhstan and the Volga), IOP — the southern part of the Russian Plain (steppe region). VK — East Kazakhstan, DM — Daura-Mongolian. AM — Amur, Manchurian, T — Turan (desert region), PT — Pamir-Tien Shan, Central Asia — the deserts of Central Asia

Among indicated in Fig. 8 wood zoning for our review Siberian forest interest only following four provinces:

West Siberian, covering the area from the previous turn — Ural province to the west of the Central Siberian Plateau, on the one hand, and from the boundary of the tundra in the north to the borders of Tuva and Buryat Autonomous Republic in the south — on the other.

For the Yenisei, on the eastern limit of the province of dark coniferous taiga losing ground light coniferous taiga. The border zone is carried out on a wide spread of dark coniferous taiga at higher elevations.

Dark coniferous taiga in the province is composed of its SIB: Siberian cedar, Siberian fir, spruce and Siberian larch.

Central Siberia is Central Siberian Plateau (except the south-western part of the, part of the West Siberian province), as well as becoming part of the Western Highlands and the Aldan Plateau. Its western border is adjacent to the West Siberian province, eastern limit is defined dominance of dark coniferous taiga, and the eastern boundary of the forest stands dominated by Siberian larch and western boundary of the Dahurian.

In the east, the border runs along the River Lena (first by foot Verkhoyansk Mountains, and south of the mouth of the Aldan — at the very Lena). Before reaching the river Olekma the boundary turns south, skirts Stanovoi Range and the upper reaches of the Zeya turns south-west, becoming isolated at our border, near the tip of the Greater Xing'an hill. The eastern boundary of the province held the western boundary of distribution Dahurian (more precisely, the eastern species, the so-called larch Cajanderi).

East Siberian is in the south of the border at first on the backbone, and then along the ridge Dzhugazhur, then, from the Cape Eyck, the border runs along the shore of the Sea of Okhotsk, and followed in a northerly direction along the watershed of the rivers Arctic and Pacific oceans along the western boundary of the province of the Bering tundra. Territory is occupied by a whole system of mountain ranges, frequently crossed network of deep river valleys. It dominates Cajanderi larch.

Okhotsk-Manchurian includes within the territory of the country from the coast (on the way from the Cape to Eyck Korean border) to the upper Zeya River in the west, where it borders on the province of the East Siberian and West Siberian provinces, the line that has already been marked, This is mainly a country. Between elevations of mountain ranges, along the rivers of the Amur, Ussuri, and Uda Amgun with vast plain with elevations of 50-100 meters.

Enough to make a few steps away from the highway Khabarovsk-Vladivostok to get into the untouched places of the kingdom of the taiga. Wild grapes pulled up through the branches of cedar. In mute struggle grips liana vine and Osinki … Amazing for its variety Ussuri taiga.

Far Eastern forests are vast and rich. Only in the local edge natively live cedar Korean, Manchurian ash, velvet Amur, Ussuri pear, yew …

Home to many species, fruit, nuts, grapes, berries, legumes and forage became the Far East. Also rich in its botanical resources southern Siberia. Valuable biological properties of known 600 wild species, the closest relatives of field, vegetable, berry and fruit crops, are of great interest to improve the current crop plants.

Man's future largely depends on the extent to which we retain on earth rich plant life, how well use it to our advantage.

All forests, without exception, are the drives of moisture, water protection, all of them, highlighting the volatile (volatile matter, provide the best air filtration of harmful microbes), and recreation are important. You probably feel the aromas of wood, heavily laden with pine needles and resin? One hectare of pine forest in summer releases five pounds, and juniper — 30 pounds of this particular matter.

Volatile production plants protect themselves from insect pests. They are rich in fruits and vegetables. Particular sort of apples "Antonovka." Thanks to them, cranberries and lingonberries long resist the onslaught of putrefying bacteria, preserve freshness. Onions, garlic, horseradish, containing volatile, prevent food from spoiling. A volatile compounds cherry lethal even for rats …

Sap of some plants detrimental effect on other plants. This is used in agriculture to control weeds.

The most important scientific and practical problems of the Siberian taiga forest managers is to protect against insect pests. These ground methods to solve the problem is very difficult, as in Siberia for the need to monitor the activity of the most dangerous pests in the area of 200-300 hectares.

None of those unexpected events that occur as a result of violations of the natural balance. Here and outbreak of pests and harmful to humans change the chemical properties of water and air, and the formation of foci of different diseases, and devastating floods, erosion, and powerful, and more, we are not yet known.

In the south of the Amur region is Khingansky Reserve. Its landscape — meadows, swan lake — typical of the Middle Amur. Many birds that nest on the reserve — such as mandarin duck, golden eagle, peregrine falcon, saker, Far stork, osprey, and Japanese White-naped Crane and others — made to the "Red Book" as rare or even endangered (see App. 1 ).

"Red Book" general list of plant and animal species, rare, threatened or endangered species, was launched by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources in 1966.

"The Red Book of the USSR" was approved in 1974, it was recorded 65 species of higher plants and should be added to another 60 species. All they need special care to keep these people.

The World Conservation Union (Geneva) has begun compiling "Green Book," which will be given information about the unique and rare landscapes in the world.

Currently, two thirds of the harvest is accounted for by the European part of the country, the site of a fifth of the total resource base. But you can not prevent depletion of forests, so the center of gravity is gradually shifting harvest to the Urals — in Eastern Siberia and the Far East.

Only in the forests of Siberia timber a little less than 60 billion cubic meters! In the area of railway timber resources are estimated at 6 billion cubic meters of wood. But not all can be taken from the forest and measure. Many useful, giving the forest simply incalculable.

Wood losses during collection, transportation and processing is high. At logging sites often remain twigs, branches, tops, stumps and roots of pine trees, forest stocks accumulated low-grade wood left over after cutting whip.

Some businesses, hoping to give high yield of timber, cut down only the most productive and high-value plantations belonging to the first class of soil quality. (Bonitet forests — an indicator of productivity (purity) of forest, depending on soil and ground water and climate conditions (habitat). Bonitet determined average height of the dominant tree species plantations with their age. We are in the taxation practice scale value classes (denoted by Roman numerals), compiled by Professor M. Orlov (1911), the plantations are divided into five classes of soil quality. The first class includes planting the most productive, the fifth — the least productive). At the same time, hardwoods — aspen, birch — are at the root. Meanwhile, there are many ways to use all of the products and to replace an equivalent amount of waste timber.

Felling should be sustainable in ways designed to improve the forest environment.

Deck within the AAC promotes rejuvenation and enhancement of forests. Allowable cut, this is the optimal rate of chopping wood in order to use the main (ie, cutting, undertaken with the timber), which is designed to provide continuous and sustainable use of forests.

Obviously, the logging that meets the needs of the moment, but it reduces the area of forests for the future, can not meet the true interests of the economy and the role of a national forest.

It should be remembered that no metal or synthetic materials, estimated tens of thousands of items, can not replace that which gives us a wonderful creation of nature-tree. For example, larch wood contains up to 49 percent cellulose, 10 percent pentoses very valuable materials for the chemical industry, to 4 per cent of ether and alcohol extracts, which define it as an important raw material for the production of pulp, rosin, fodder yeast and other products.

The Soviet Union is the world's largest reserves of timber and timber volume. Now the main task is to maximize the use of the so-called "non-business timber" — wood chips, sawdust, low-quality wood.

Organize the production of particle boards and fiber boards, industrial processing of dead and wind-fallen trees, which are still regarded as waste. Thus it became known and waiting to go: Arbol — an alloy of wood and cement — a good building material, such as the home of it passed the exam in Antarctica, the Kings — created from waste wood industry — the crust. Building material has an excellent thermal insulation.

Developed a method for the main component — foam from sawdust. New material like foam, has unique thermal insulation properties.

During the processing of twigs and other forest wastes learned how to get a much needed industrial and medical product furfural.

Using the physical properties of snow — when it melts and vibration regroup their crystals — Northern Branch Research Institute of Forest Industries (Arkhangelsk) proposed the use of slightly warmed snow (with the addition of sawdust) as the road surface. Such a coating can withstand any vehicle carrying capacity and can operate year-round in the harsh conditions of the Far North.

"Human nature is stronger — says NF Reimers — but it has to be smarter than her — to be able to minimize the losses, and if they go to them, to understand clearly their size and impact."

If the forest is composed of only one species, taezhniki call it clean, but when in the main canopy consists of two or three species, it is called mixed. For example, pure pinetum denotes tenths of units: 10 S. mixed stands can be expressed by the following formula: 7C 2E 1B. This means that in the area of forest that is different from growing nearby, consists of 70 percent pine, spruce, and 20 percent of 10 percent by volume of birch wood per hectare. At the same height and thickness of the trunks or a small difference in the height and thickness of the composition of the rocks can be adopted and the ratio of the number of stems of each breed.

Forest may be young, mature and over (old), as well as the definitions to some extent arbitrary, then, describing a particular area of forest for each breed taezhnik puts in brackets its age. In the example above the age of pine 100-120 years. Sometime after the last fire fumes slowly resumed the new forest. The clearing between spruce pine settled, and its age from 80 to 100 years, and only here and there in free areas has grown birch, her 70-80 years. The formula describing this part of the forest would be: 7C (100-120) 2E (80-100) 1B (70-80).

Wood can be sparse or dense. Taezhniki subdivide it to fray, malopolnotnye, srednepolnotnye vysokopolnotnye and forest areas. Without going into the intricacies of determining the completeness and crown density of forest, called the most affordable way to determine the extent of settling them busy square. If you looked up at the main canopy, the observer will see gaps (windows) between the trees, the fullness of the forest will be equal to one (1.0). If at least half the stands of the dense forest, the completeness of the forest will be 0.5. As the number of trees will be closer to the fullness of unity, with the decline — to 0.1. Forest areas are full vysokopolnotnym 0.8-1.0, 0.6-0.7 full — srednepolnotnym, completeness 0.3-0.5 — to malopolnotnym and completeness 0.1-0.2 — to fray.

Taezhniki, based on the appearance of the crowns, distribute trees in the forest of the most powerful to the most frail, but alive, in the five classes and subclasses. I belong to the class tree, the best on the growth and development of the crown, to the class V — the most backward.

Height and diameter of trees of different species differ. Usually the height of each species at the site is determined by the height of the main canopy (class II) altimeter, and the diameter of the average tree canopy cover of this basic — Fixed plug.

Forests are either simple, in which the trees are about the same height and form a single canopy (level), and complex, consisting of two or more layers, one above the other. For example, the upper canopy of pine tree 26 meters high, the second canopy — spruce height of 18 meters. In such cases, a description of each canopy separately. In the first stage (upper canopy) are high mature trees, in the second — the younger and less high (adolescents) and in the third — shrubs (undergrowth).

In the Far East can be found shestiyarusny stands: the top tier — Korean pine mixed with birch 30-36 meters tall, the second tier — lime, and the third — maple, walnut, Amur velvet, black cherry, and the fourth — the Amur lilac the fifth — two species of maple (high undergrowth); sixth — hazel (hazel), jasmine, euonymus (low undergrowth).

Forest care in its different ages called lightening (young pine drowns his release from rocks), cleaning (quite grown trees interfere with each other, and the forest make it more rare), thinning (razrezhivayut zherdnyaki, remove dead wood, stunted trees that are cut down sometimes and a rather large trees that obscure their neighbors. After 20 years in this area is carried out so-called cutting-through, which resulted in the forest are the most powerful and beautiful trees that will be cut in the 80-100-year-old. For each tree species requires an appropriate a way of escaping.

At the age of ten pine underbrush forester cuts down a birch, aspen and other species that choke the pine, slash and stunted young pines, as they will sooner or later dry up. After a few years in this area will come again, and people will remove pine shrunken, stunted, and where they grow very close, cut down trees and leave the worst of the best. This forest care repeats every 10 years, and the 60-80-year age of the forest — in 20 years.

Forester involved in forest planting, to care for him and many other forest operations. Watchman forester protects its so-called bypass — the forest area of 400 hectares in the sparsely-central to several thousand acres, for example in Siberia. It bypasses (goes round) in his place, protecting it from unauthorized felling, forest fires, and notifies the occurrence of outbreaks of insect pests, and other relevant circumstances.

Every race is different from other trees on the outer contour of the crown, shape and color of the barrel, on the arrangement of leaves and needles on the branches, and their form.

Tree every year in autumn shed their leaves. Through leaf tree breathes. If the air is very dirty, tree and leaves in the summer can change. A case where poplars changed one summer leaves five times!

But the needles — the same sheet. Just hang the sheet on the tree for several years. And while hanging many pollutants gather that work almost stop. So bad time in elkam and cedar, pine and fir. Also does not like the city their constant companion in the taiga "moss-bearded" — gray lichen. Long beards hanging from the branches of a bearded old trees and gives them a fabulous view of the twilight of the taiga. If he disappeared into the woods, and other bearded lichen — so close to the city. However, there is eating, who are suffering city. This is the famous "blue spruce" which are planted at the mausoleum of Lenin.

Bright dress — This is a farewell type of tree. Tree part with their old leaves in the spring to grow more.

Remember, as described this phenomenon Pushkin?

"Autumn Romance! Charm of eyes! Nice to me your farewell beauty — I love the lush withering of nature, in crimson and gold-clad wood! …"

In crimson and gold … What kind of tree is it?

In scarlet coats are autumn aspens in gold — birch.

By the form of trees, shrubs and grasses can judge the nature of the soil and its moisture content. In turn, attentive taezhnik walking through the forest, can see how forest species are replaced depending on the soil.


Fig. 9. Siberian species of pine: a — ordinary, b — Siberian cedar, in — elfin cedar

On a hill, where the sand under my feet felt, often growing pine. Widespread species — pine — is 22 per cent among the conifers. It covers 108 million hectares, or 17.1 per cent, the forest area of the country. Total known to 75 different species of pine. In our country, growing 13 species of pine, most of them little-known. In Siberia, a dare to live only three species — Scots pine, cedar and pine elfin (Fig. 9).


Fig. 10. Pine gets accustomed to any place

In mountain pine often chooses a warm southern slopes and lifts away to their tops. As M. Lermontov:

"In the wild north stands alone at the top of a bare pine and dozing, swaying, and loose snow dressed like a garment, it is."

Scots pine settled everywhere in our country and far beyond the borders of our country, because of their special properties of survival to anyone place (Fig. 10).

Cedar is not afraid of the cold soil and therefore is in the mountains of the second floor.

In Magadan, Sakhalin and Kamchatka regions, usually in the wild pine there, except for some places. In the Khabarovsk region, it grows only in the north.

In the south area is bordered by pine dry steppes, and in the north it extends almost to the border of the tundra. In the Far East Pine Eastern Amur and Ussuri almost never occurs.


Fig. 11. The barrel is made of pine, and suspended nicks cap to collect the resin

Scots pine needles are arranged in pairs in the beam, they are tough, sharp and often twisted. Pine needles gradually replaced in 2-3 years, and she is at the ends of the shoots, mostly on the crown, and the crown itself loosely translucence.

Of pine resin are very valuable products — turpentine and rosin. However, not every tree can give sap — resin (Fig. 11). Learn as accurately what generous with pine sap, can a man of rare profession — vzdymschik. These are people skilled, able to read it on the tree trunk complete characterization, using only their visible and understandable trappings.

The most valuable species in our forests is cedar (Siberian pine, which is not quite correct to call Siberian cedar because cedar — born tsedrus — live in the hill country of the Atlas, on the island of Cyprus, in the mountains of Lebanon, in the Himalayas at an altitude of 1100 to 4000 meters above sea level. these cedar seeds are not edible.) Siberian pine needles in bundles located on five needles in a bundle. Seeds — pine nuts — heavy winged — edible!

If you need to know the direction of the main winds, look at the Cedars — "Flags" — which extends the "flag" back and winds.

Pine forests cover 37 million hectares, or 5 percent of forest area. They — the rich feeding grounds fur. Their constant inhabitant bird nutcracker (Fig. 12). Making supplies of nuts, prefers to hide them on glades, on the trails, in rotten stumps, in clearings and burns. Active carriers of cedar seeds are protein and chipmunk (Fig. 13). Nutcracker carries nuts in a tundra moss, and therefore for a new portion back any time soon. Its "carrying capacity" is amazing. For once, it can move up to 150 pieces of nuts, and bump their is an average of 75.


Fig. 12. Nutcracker


Fig. 13. Chipmunk

Tasty nuts supplied almost the entire population of the taiga, from tiny mouse to the "master of taiga" bear. In the fall, as soon as ripe nuts, starts noise, fights — go carve. Many animals chew pine nuts, but bite shuck differently. Nutcracker, for example, with its beak breaks off half shell, mouse gnawing a hole and eat away the grain, others another.

In crop year can gather in Siberia to a million tons of pine nuts. To transport them would take about 60,000 freight cars.

In the Pechora taiga, near the Arctic Circle and the European Urals pine covers 90 hectares. Visitor from Siberia — Siberian cedar, pine or cedar grows on the Kola Peninsula in the culture (the seeds are sown in forest clearings). Here taiga stepped beyond the Arctic Circle, and the place is unique within the USSR.

The European North complete "census" of the Siberian cedar and been registered and protected all cedar. Created 14 preserves this valuable conifer with a total area of over 7,000 hectares.

Meet the elfin cedar can only Baikal, west will not find it. Next to him, there are no trees, but still quite a lot of plants — pygmies who rescued the winter under thin snow cover. Bushes of mountain pines rise by two meters (Fig. 14).


Fig. 14. Bushes of mountain pines

When sandy soil gradually becomes more dense clay, pine replaced spruce. It is typical of the breed for our boreal forests, occupying 81 million hectares, or 13 per cent forest cover. In the south area of the region bounded by eating humus

GOVERNMENTAL soil as dry air prevents its further spread to the south.

Spruce needles are arranged spirally, individually, they are rectangular, rigid, acuminate, spiny, glossy, dark or bright green. Spruce — a large tree with a beautiful conical crown, slender stem and shallow root system. Cones ripen in September. In the south of Primorye and Khabarovsk bumps disclosed after puberty, so they need to be collected in a timely manner. Seeds almost black, about half are smaller and easier to spruce Ayan than Siberian spruce.

There are three types of oil in the Ussuri taiga, Ayan, Siberian (Fig. 15), and Korean.


Fig. 15. Siberian species ate a — Ayan, b — Siberian

Interestingly, 15 December 1699 Peter decreed: "… summer is not considered since the creation of the world and of our Lord on the eighth day after, and read the New Year is not the first of September and the first of January of this year 1700. And in a sign of good beginnings and new centennial year with gladness greet each other a Happy New Year! By great and noble streets … a passing in front of goal to inflict some decorations from trees and branches of pine, spruce and juniper .. ". Since then, there is the tradition of the people to organize a Christmas (Christmas) tree and take the day to visit Santa Claus with bags all kinds of gifts!

New Year — the most favorite holiday and other nations. For example, the Japanese at every door pose associated with young pine branches and bamboo — symbols of fidelity and longevity.

Currently, in order to avoid cutting pine forests, have been widely used artificial Christmas trees, and sale of forest trees our government took control and significantly limited.

Similar to the spruce fir on the specifics, but Shade-tolerant and more demanding on the soil. It occurs in Siberia. Total fir occupies 12 million hectares, or 1.9 per cent, the forest area.

Fir needles are flat, soft, it can be distinguished from the needles of spruce by two white stripes on the bottom, and the ether smell needles, rubbed between the fingers (Fig. 16).


Fig. 16. Siberian species of fir: a — tselnolistnaya, b — Khingan


Fig. 17. Siberian species of juniper: a — normal, b — hard, in — White-naped

Throughout the forest zone of the USSR extended evergreen shrub juniper (Fig. 17). In southern Siberia and other places is growing juniper — juniper tree, occupying an area of 0.4 million hectares. Mountain juniper forests are important soil and water conservation, keeping the water content of mountain springs.

The largest area (51 per cent) of softwood is larch — 252 million hectares, or 40 percent, the area of the state forest fund. It often forms the northern border of the forest vegetation on soils with closely overlain horizon permafrost.

The famous forester Professor VP Timofeev calculated how many days of the year are growing pine, spruce, oak and larch. And it turned out that the oak grows less than a month, pine and spruce month low, and larch growing for three months! She manages to get water and minerals from the soil when the other trees can no longer do that.

Larch (trunk straight, smooth, conical-cylindrical crown with ovate-conical) are easily distinguished from other conifers on the needles. Soft, flat, bright green needles grow in length of 25-50 millimeters bundles of 25 pieces or more in each (Fig. 18). The needles are shed in winter and reappears in spring: this characteristic of deciduous trees, is a conifer called larch.

Of the main most common hardwood birch, for example, warty and fluffy, occupying 88 million hectares. In the Far East are growing stone, black, yellow birch and steel on an area of 5 hectares. In the USSR there are about 65 species of birch trees. Warty — forms a plantation in the forest and forest-steppe of Western Siberia, and fluffy — on moist soils in Western and Eastern Siberia. Birch grow in Primorye (birch Manchu) and the Amur (birch ploskolistnaya), they differ little from each other. Besides Khingan Ussuriisk birch forests grow black or Daurian and birch ribbed, or yellow — the largest of the birches of the Far East.


Fig. 18. Larch (branch with cones)

Belostvolnaya forms beautiful birch grove in the southern strip of Cis-Baikal and Baikal, and in more northern areas interspersed with green carpet in the taiga with other broad-leaved deciduous trees or forms birch forests in the steppe regions of Irkutsk and Chita regions, and in Buryatia.

Aspen is 17.5 million hectares, or about 3 percent, the area of all breeds. Prefers fresh loamy soil.

In wet, damp and wet soils in the floodplain forest rivers and their banks in the mucky or silty-swampy soils with the presence of running water growing black alder. "Where alder — and the grass there," — says the proverb.

It should be noted that without the trees in the upper canopy alone occupy a land area high bushes: euonymus, hawthorn, tamarisk, derzhiderevo, dwarf birch, pine elfin, Candy, cherry laurel, hazel, olive, juniper, rhododendron, svidina and others.

The more light-requiring species that make up the upper canopy, and the richer the soil, the denser and more diverse understory shrub: hazel, honeysuckle, euonymus on loamy sands and wet sands, buckthorn in the lowlands, broom in the southern forests.

In Siberia, the Altai, and in other places is growing sea buckthorn — a shrub of 2-3 meters. Buckthorn berries are rich in vitamin C. Sea buckthorn oil contains pro-vitamin A (carotene) and is used for burns, frostbite, with radiation injuries.

Widespread in southern Siberia, the Altai, Baikal and elsewhere yellow acacia. A major shortcoming of this shrub is the fact that birds do not build their nests in it.

Especially numerous in Siberia blackcurrant. In the USSR there are 37 species of wild it. It grows in damp, on the banks of rivers, and other locations.

In sparse forests, forest edges, river banks growing hawthorn bush. In its thickets bird nest.

In the Soviet Union grows more than 10,000 species of plants. These are also connected with the life of the forest.

If the grass cover of spruce forest and wood sorrel are maynik, this suggests that the soil is loamy or sandy, permeable and ate a good growth. Once deteriorating drainage (water penetration into the soil and flow within it), soil moisture increases, the growth of spruce deteriorates immediately disappears and oxalis maynik and densely begins to grow blueberries.

If the water is often stagnant and over-moistened soil, blueberries becomes smaller and the first place stands moss "haircap." In the same case, when standing water almost constantly, instead Kukushkin flax appears swamp moss — sphagnum. Its presence indicates a lack of lime in the soil.

In spruce stands but said oxalis, there are wild ginger, coppice, raven eyes, pea spring.

For coarse humus characterized cranberries, blueberries, heather, haircap.

On burned soil nitrate is formed, and they settle plants assimilate her willow-herb, raspberry, nettle, chistetsa forest, dandelions, thistles.

Bracken fern prefers sandy loam, rich in potassium.

In very humid areas of the forest good indicator of running water is sweet, touchy yellow loosestrife, bluebell many years. Even in the marshes, you can determine where the weak current of water, if there is growing marsh cinquefoil.

In the old spruce forest can often see large gray band ("beard") hanging from the dry branches. In dry places mounds in sparse pine forest can sometimes see large cushions of silver-gray lichen — reindeer moss. In the forest, there are simple plants (other than trees, herbaceous plants, shrubs, dwarf shrubs and mosses), which are a useful example of cohabitation (symbiosis) marsupials fungi with algae. They have a mutual services in the life process, and are collectively called lichens. Their favorite place — the shady forest. The fungus is the outer part, or shell, algae — its contents. There are about 17-20 thousand species of lichens. Many of them are edible.

Lichen-moss — a favorite food for the reindeer, who manage to obtain it even in the winter under the snow. For the year, "bush" lichen grows only 3-5 millimeters! Second graze animals on lichen meadow can be in 15-20 years! Best lichen grows in deciduous forests. These forests — a dining room for the reindeer.

Occur on the trunk of a tree wound (an ax for someone knocks pampering, twig or bark bummer obgryzut animals), gets into a wound fungal spores and mycelium grows in the wood. Fungus do not need much. Would be air, water, food yes. And he starts to grind tree fungus inside. And sharpens until a hollow in a tree, a hollow. And there on the trunks of "mushrooms" in large hooves (Fig. 19). The offspring — fruiting bodies of fungi. They mature spores and spread to the destruction of nearby healthy trees.


Fig. 19. On the trunk of a birch grown Polypore:

in — "hoof", b — Chaga

People are "hoof" is dried, it turns out they rub — readily combustible material. Hunters in the case of rain always with you have tinder. Therefore, these mushrooms popularly called Polypore.

In the hollows of trees, have done Polypore, refuge proteins — valuable fur-bearing animals. And from spruce, poluistochennoy mushrooms wood, called rot, make hives for bees. Bees in the hive in winter are not afraid of the cold, because the rot poor conductor of heat.

Are most often damaged trees rot in old forests. Polypores harm is much more than good. Most affected by Polypores aspen.

It should be remembered that trees, gassed, covered with dust, blown dry winds, broken by storms, snow weighed down to the ground, struck by lightning, rot and insect pests are killed, so the forest and plantations man must!

Azimuth movement — a simple yet reliable method of orienteering.

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