Bitter cold, piercing, knocking down the wind, blinding blizzard, many of the obstacles are many difficulties in the campaign, the overcoming of which requires all forces and stamina. In preparation for the transition to focus on fit and protect shoes from moisture, as the legs — the most vulnerable point of the polar traveler. For insulation shoe insoles are commonly used all sorts of felt, felt, hay grass, etc. In the autonomous existence of highly effective protection against moisture shoe booties. This bags or cases of a fabric that is worn over shoes and formed through the airspace retain its surface relatively warm. The resulting water vapor condenses on the inner surface of the shoe covers, which turns into a kind of water reservoir, continuously xerantic shoes. To keep your feet warm, it is advisable to wear socks over the plastic bag, and then a second pair of socks. The resulting air space provides reliable insulation feet. It is important to insulate the head and face, as they account for a significant part of the heat of the body.
At a temperature of minus 4 ° heat transfer from the head, almost 50% of the heat man at rest. According to P. Bobst, heat loss from unprotected head with an air temperature minus 5 ° may be about half of the total heat production of the body, and at minus 15 ° — nearly three-quarters. In a dense, smooth snowpack can run at speeds of 5 — 6 km / h. Soviet sports expedition, launched March 16, 1979 from the island of Henrietta, breaking the nearly two thousand miles on drifting ice of the Arctic Ocean, the seventy-sixth day of May 31, reached the North Pole. Average speed skiing was 3 — 3.5 miles per hour. The maximum length of the path traveled in ten pyatidesyatiminutnyh transitions reach 38 km per day. It is clear that the speed was reduced to hundreds or even tens of meters per hour in areas of hummocky ice. Thus, if we consider that even with the highest sports training participants polar expedition their speed skiing was relatively small, leaving distress from the accident can be recommended only as a last resort. Greater difficulty during transitions is targeting, because the regular magnetic compass in high latitudes gives large deviation and error in orientation can be more than 10 °. It is known that on the compass impact force of terrestrial magnetism, which consists of horizontal and vertical components. With increasing strength of the horizontal component of latitude is waning, she can not hold the arrow in the direction North — South, and compass readings are distorted. Among the infinite space of the snowy tundra, monotonous landscape of white high-arctic regions where flat as a table, ice fields are interrupted by chaotic piles of blue and white hummocks, no dark spot, which could serve as a guide. Because of this, people sometimes completely loses idea of the distance. Assistance in guiding can have snow vents Sun preserving certain configuration under the influence of the prevailing winds. As it can withstand the movement direction, and sometimes even to decide on the countries of the world. The most narrow part of its low vents Sun located on the windward side, and gradually rising, abruptly break the lee. Thus, on the Arctic islands, dominated by easterly winds, steep side of the airflow will be turned to the west, in the high Arctic, characterized by southerly winds, it will indicate the direction to the north. A lot of noise in the Arctic creates refraction caused by the temperature difference between the lower layers of air and water. Line of sight passes through the medium of different density, interpreted in the horizontal and vertical directions, distorting the observed objects on the horizon. Due to refraction visible horizon is reduced or, more commonly, increases. Symptoms of a mirage is usually the undulating horizon trembling, the occurrence of a light haze in the atmosphere. . Jokes played refraction with Danish polar researchers Unther and Poulsen. One day they saw on the hill musk ox. . Arctic haze is also often incredibly distorted objects and landscapes. Members of the expedition recommended during transitions on drifting ice to ensure safety and to select the most convenient route to conduct special reconnaissance group of two people. Scouts specify the route condition, the presence of the passages in the fields of broken ice in the ridge, place restrictions fractures, determine the need for vessels to overcome the large polynya, etc. Overcoming obstacles on the route requires knowledge of certain rules and techniques. Small 2 — 3-meter crack can just jump over, handing over his entire extra load and transfer it to the other side, 4 — to 6-meter plots filled snow porridge (slush), pass through large blocks of ice and debris. If the path is blocked by a high pressure ridge is best to try to work around it or find a radius of 300 — 500 m pass. Must overcome the ridge slowly, observing the greatest caution, as chunks of ice are often in a stable position, and collapsed under their feet, can cause serious injury (fracture, dislocation, sprain). But perhaps the most difficult and sometimes insurmountable obstacle is the open water — divorce and open water. You can find out about them in advance by the color of the sky, which, like a giant mirror, reflecting the ocean's surface. On open water always warns water sky — dark spots on the low clouds. Often, water evaporation, condensing in the cold air, form of divorce thick black-brown haze that resembles the smoke of a forest fire.