Yellow ground squirrel or gopher-sandstone — citellus fulvus lichtenstein. Distribution and abundance in Kazakhstan

Parts Distribution yellow squirrel in Kazakhstan are presented in the following form (Belyaev, 1955, our data). In the north-western border of its range extends to p. Volga and comes to latitude Volsk. Of the Lower Volga, it goes to Khaz Talovka, Furmanov Kalmykov.

Hence the boundary of the Urals rises to Terektinsky area (above Uralsk) and downstream Jilek, passes south of Orenburg, turns south l Dzhambeytinsky area and sands Biyryuk (120 km east of Kalmykov). Then goes to the east and, bypassing Mugodzhary from the south to the north rises to Kara BUTAKOV to the upper Ori and then to the upper reaches of rivers and Irgiz Ulkoyaka (tributary. Turgay) for Naurzumsky boron, pos. Semiozerny, hence it turns to the east, and almost reaching the lake. Kurgaldzhin passes east of the lake and Zharkul Shoindykul, heading south-east, the mountain passes Ulutau east, goes to the upper and Sarykengira Karakengir.

Further to the south area of this ground squirrel partially covers the area between the rivers of the last two rivers. After their merger, he stripe width of 10-15 km runs on both sides nearly Karakengir its confluence with the Sarysu (50-70 KM north of the sea level. Karadzhar — put northwestern escarpment Betpak Dala). Hence the northern border of the area is in the valley. Sarysu northeasterly 58 to patrol the Kazakh Well. village, located on the right bank of the river, 25 km east st. Kzyldzhar. In this area, area stretches along both sides of the river to the relatively narrow band. Further south, the boundary follows the western Betpak Dala, skirting the sands Djety kennels from the east and heads of the lake. Karakain (Dabusuntuz) to the south east of the highway several Suzak — Dzhezkazgan to the Lower Chu. From there it goes to the east and south-east along the southern edge of Betpak Dala, taking a deep ledge to the north to the mountains of Jumbo, where area includes zyach'' yskie saxaul. The boundary then crosses the northern part of the Chu-Ili mountains, passes through the southern edge Tauke atoms and eastern reaches p. Or in the area between Kurt and Kaskelenki. The area marked displacement of the boundary distribution of yellow squirrel to p. Or in a number of items on the right bank Kaskelenki which occurred only in the last decade. The southern boundary of the area is in the foothills Zoiliyskogo Tau and further west — outside Kazakhstan.

Yellow gopher distributed in the following administrative regions of Kazakhstan: in Guriev, southern Urals and Aktyu-binskoy areas in some southern areas Kustanai, Tselinograd western regions, in the south of Karaganda, most Kyzylorda, Shymkent, Zhambyl and the adjacent part of the Alma-Ata areas. The largest tracts are located in the rodent and Turgay Amangeldy areas Kustanai, Irgiz near Aktobe, Dzhezkazgan and Ulu tauskom district of Karaganda region. Yellow gopher quite abundant on the coast of the Aral Sea and in the valley. Syr-Darya, on the coast of the Caspian Sea, the Aral Karakum desert outskirts, along the river. Chu and the foothills of Trans-Ili Alatau (neighborhood Uzun Agach, Sams, etc.).

As a fur animal yellow gopher acclimatized on the island of Bar-sakelmes in the Aral Sea. Outside of the range, the issue was produced in the eastern part of the Karaganda region, where the animals are for some reason not acclimatized.

From the description of the range of yellow squirrel that it holds in the Kazakhstan desert and semi-desert zones and only partially penetrate the feather-fescue steppes. In this case, it is common not entirely, but in separate arrays, between which there are not big enough or sometimes vast empty space. It should be pointed out that not populated tracts of sand yellow gopher Muyunkum and Kyzyl Kum and gravelly-clay land Ustyurt. In this case its settlement limit edaphic factors.

Insular nature of the distribution of the gopher within the range supported by the data on the density of the normal distribution and the number of animals at 1 hectare in different geographical locations of Kazakhstan.

Surveys X. Kydyrbaeva and I. Shubin (1966), conducted in 1964 in the north of the Kazakhstan part of the range of yellow squirrel — between Aktobe, Kostanay and Karaganda regions, identified 28 main arrays, in which the density of the population is equal to two to ten animals per 1 ha. With the highest density (seven to ten animals per 1 ha) noted: in Araltogayskom, Kayraktinskom, Akbulaksky, Boztabanskom, Sula-Kola and Aktastinskom arrays Aktobe, and Ka-Teke byrginskom Kustanai; Zhezdinskom array Karaganda regions. Relatively smaller animals (four to six individuals per 1 ha) was Belkopinskom, Kalybayskom, Temirbayskom, Tmabulak-Soviet tracts Aktobe, Turgay, Kumkol, Ulyzhilan-chikskom arrays Kustanai; Kumulinskom, Aschimirskom, West Baikonur, Ulutauskom arrays Karaganda regions. The lowest population density (two to three animals per 1 ha) in Mukyrskom and Maykarinskom arrays Kustanai and Upper Kengir, Baikonur, Karsakpay Sarysu arrays and Karaganda regions. As can be seen, the arrays with the highest population density of gophers were more common within the Aktobe and Kustanai areas while in Karaganda they were less densely populated.

Dimensions populated gophers arrays vary enormously. For example, Kumkol, Ulyzhilanchiksky and Upper Kengir arrays had an area of 5 thousand ha and Saryturgay-sky (Amanteldinsky area Kustanai region) reached 60 thousand ha.

It should be noted that in the territories and Karabutakskogo Irgiz Raion Aktobe region in ten arrays recorded a total area of 159 thousand hectare it was estimated in 1186 thousands of gophers, in Dzhangildinskom and Amangeldy areas Kostanai region in nine tracts of approximately 170 thousand hectare the total number of animals equal to 899 thousand, in the district of Karaganda region Dlsezdinskom on nine arrays with area of 116 thousand ha — 516 thousand gophers. Thus, only in the three regions of Kazakhstan is estimated about 2.6 million yellow gopher, which apparently is no more than the third part of their population in the country.

According to SP Naumov, EP Spangenberg (1928), AA Slud-ray (1938), A. Belyaev (1955), and our observations, the population density in seven to ten gophers 1 hectare is the limit for certain areas of the Urals, Kyzylorda and Zhambyl regions. But in many areas of the country it does not exceed one to three animals per 1 ha.

The literature contains evidence of a decline in population density of yellow squirrel to the south (Fenyuk and stone, 1957 torticollis, 1958, Kostin, 1962 Davydov, 1964, etc.). This was to some extent, could be evidence of the fact that in the south area of sandstone mined it very little. For example, in the blanks of this ground squirrel skins throughout the Union gives Kazakhstan 79.5%, and the remaining 20.5% are four Central Asian republics of Kyrgyzstan — 16.09, Uzbekistan — 4,27, Turkmenistan — 0.11 and Tajikistan — 0.02%. However, when comparing these figures should stipulate that the area of Kazakhstan more than twice as much as all four of the Federal Republic together or even contrasting — more than 10 times the size of Kyrgyzstan.

The population density is quite high ground squirrel (seven to ten animals per 1 ha) We observed in areas of the Central Ustyurt prichinkovyh — in Eq. Kugusem etc.

The sharp increase in the number of ground squirrels observed in the extreme south-east of Kazakhstan to the area, where at the same time there is an intensive settlement of the animal. In the latter case, the animal chooses the river valleys and other parts of mesophilic low relief, where the density of their population reaches 25 — 30 holes and up to eight animals per 1 ha.

Of great interest to compare the results of a census of yellow squirrel in the valley. Chu and in areas adjacent to it sandy and gravelly desert. The left bank of the Chu populated gophers to a greater extent than the right bank. This phenomenon can explain the nature of the soil and vegetation in these areas. The most favorable conditions for the existence of sandstone found in the Nordic Muyunkum where the clay soil areas grows relatively rich and lush grasses and more advanced ephemera. In some remote areas of the floodplain Muyunkum density exceeds that of normal in the valley (the Greater Kamkaly). In the latter case, the valley is not expressed, and the areas occupied by floodplain salines, salt lakes and reed beds. Right bank. Chu is bordered by gravel desert, so here is well expressed decrease population density of yellow squirrel in the adjacent areas of the floodplain. Relatively high population density observed in Koskudukskih saxaul and western Betpak Dala.

A significant population density was observed on the yellow ground squirrel sagebrush-halophytic areas on the left bank or. However, due to the plowing of land on the plains of these rodents in 1957 moved to the floodplain or Kaskelenki and were preserved only in the areas of the plateau. On the plains, they met only on roadsides and unfit for cultivation mounds and hollows.

Thus, in the south-eastern area of yellow squirrel in Kazakhstan maximum density of the population reported in a number of places Koskudukskoy timber house, dedicated to railroad and settlements, as well as in the left bank of the lower reaches of Chu, which serve as centers of its mass reproduction. They are, to some extent, may be compared to the western regions Betpak Dala and separate areas on the left bank, or where the number of sandstone are also quite high.

The nature of the stay. Yellow gopher — sedentary animal, although he characterized the periphery area of settlement and migrations. For example, for more than three decades, marked by intensive settlement of the ground squirrel in the north-eastern and south-eastern parts of its range. This is explained by the change of vegetation under the influence of grazing and intensive plowing of virgin lands, which resulted in the observed concentration of squirrels in the remaining areas of virgin land, or on the margins of cultivated land.

For yellow gopher typical seasonal migrations caused by changes in feeding conditions. In connection with burn vegetation on watershed squirrels move into the depression and in coastal areas. They are dominated by juveniles and adults at this time manage to accumulate fat and go into hibernation. Well defined slot-feed sites used each animal separately.

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