Topographic map — this is a very interesting and extremely deep drawing. The famous Russian traveler Semenov-Tyan-Shansky said so on this occasion, "Map more important than the text, as is often said much brighter, visually and concisely the best text. " And so it is. Each sheet topographic map contains a wealth of material on the disclosure of which would have required hundreds of pages in a book.
Map — a graphical description of the terrain. Just as the letters are made up of individual words and groups of words express thoughts, and by various topographic symbols, arranged in a specific order, create a map of the area.
Symbols, like the cards, passed a long way of development. Images of local objects on the maps of earlier eras had a "picture" of nature. Each subject transmitted pattern, with no obvious explanation. Cities, forests, castles portrayed as they were seen in the field. Such an image is often used and is now in the tourist plans and maps (Fig. 30).
Over time, the image of settlements on the cards at the beginning of the picture changed to a planned image, and then by drawing a symbol.
So, signs — this is the real alphabet cards. Without knowledge of the symbols can not read a map, just as you can not read the book, not knowing letters. With the symbols on the map clearly to provide a valid picture of the terrain.
Most of the symbols in its tracing of the look is reminiscent of the featured local items, which makes it relatively easy to remember them. Symbols are constantly improving, but fundamental changes in their styles and shapes occurs. Moreover, many countries are now used almost the same signs. And it is said that the alphabet cards becomes international. And if you learn to read well our map, after a little practice, can be successfully used by any foreign currency.
Explanatory properties of symbols is their color, which gives the map visualization. Colors taken for certain symbols, corresponding to the natural color of the depicted object. Thus, forests, shrubs, gardens and parks are depicted in green, the sea, rivers, lakes, wells, springs, swamps — blue; relief elements — brown. It is the traditional color used on the maps of the world.
Symbols representing the same local objects, the maps of large and medium scale equal in their faces and differ only in size.
Symbols are divided into large-scale, vnemasshtab-nye and explanatory.
Scale, or outline, signs are used to represent local objects which by their size can be expressed in the scale of the map, that is, their dimensions (length, width, area) can be measured on the map. For example: a lake, a meadow, large gardens, neighborhoods populated areas. Contours (outer boundary) of local objects are shown on the map by solid lines or dotted lines, forming figures like these local subjects, but only in a reduced form, that is to scale. The solid lines
shows the contour blocks, lakes, large rivers, and the contours of forests, meadows, swamps — a dotted line.
Buildings and houses lead to scale, showing figures similar to their actual shape on the ground and fill with black. Figure 31 shows a number of large-scale (a) and vnemasshtabnyh (b) symbols.
Vnemasshtabnye symbols are used to represent small local items that are not expressed in the map scale — standing trees, houses, wells, monuments, etc. If the image to scale them they would have received in the form of points. Examples include images of objects vnemasshtabnymi common signs are shown in Figure 31. The exact location of the objects depicted vnemasshtabpymi conventional signs (b), determined by the center symmetrical shapes (7, 8, 9, 14, 15), in the middle of the base of the figure (10, 11) in the top corner of the shape (12, 13). A point on the shape of the symbol vnemasshtabnogo called the principal point. In this figure, the arrow shows the main points of symbols on the map.
This information is useful to remember in order to correctly measure the distance between the local objects on the map.
Explanatory symbols are used to further characterize local objects and applications. are combined with the scale and vnemasshtabnymi signs. For example, a figure of coniferous or deciduous tree forest inside the outline shows the dominant tree species in it, the arrow indicates the direction of the river and its flow, etc.
In addition to symbols on the cards are used long and short captions and digital characteristics of certain objects. For example, the signature "mash." Under the sign of the plant means that the plant engineering. Fully signed by place names, rivers, mountains, etc.
Reference numerals are used to indicate the number of houses in rural areas, the altitude above sea level, the road width, load characteristics and dimensions of the bridge, as well as the size of the trees in the forest, etc. Digital notation relating to the conventional signs of relief, printed in brown , width and depth of rivers — blue — everything else is black.
Let us briefly consider the main types of conventional topographic signs for the image area on the map.
Let's start with the terrain. Due to the fact that his character depends largely on the conditions of observation, cross-country and its protective properties, topography, and its elements are displayed on all maps in great detail. Otherwise we could not use the card for the examination and evaluation of the area.
To clearly and fully imagine the area on the map, it is first necessary to be able to quickly and correctly identify on the map:
— Types of the surface roughness, and their relative positions;
— Relative and absolute height exceeding any terrain points;
— The form, the steepness and length of slopes.
On modern maps relief depicts contours, ie curved closed lines, the points are located on the ground at the same height above sea level. To better understand the nature of the topography image contours, imagine an island in the form of mountains, gradually flooded with water. Assume that the water level is consistently stops at regular intervals, the height is h meters (Figure 32). Then each level of water will meet its coastline in the form of closed curves, all points of which are the same height. These lines can be seen as signs of the cross-
of uneven ground planes parallel to the surface level of the sea, from which the account is maintained heights. Accordingly, the distance h in height between the cutting surface is called the height section.
So, if all the lines of equal elevation on the design urovenpuyu sea surface and represent them on the scale, we get a map image of the mountain in the form of curves of closed lines. This will be the horizontal.
In order to know this mountain or valley, there are signs of skates — small bars that are applied perpendicular to the contour lines downward slope.
Basic (standard) forms of relief are shown in Figure 32.
Height section depends on the map scale and the nature of the terrain. The normal height of the section is you-
cell is equal to 0.02 magnitude scale of the map, that is 5 meters for maps of scale 1: 25 000 and, respectively, 10, 20 m for the maps scale 1: 50,000, 1: 100000. Horizontally on the map corresponding to the set for her height of the section, conducted by solid lines and are called primary or continuous contour. But it happens that in the height of the section of the important details of the relief can not be expressed on the map, as they are between the clipping planes. Then apply the half-polugorizontali which are held in a half height main section and map dotted lines. To determine the account in determining the height of contour points on the map of all solid horizontal corresponding to five times the height of the section, are drawn thickening (thick horizontal). Thus, for a map of scale 1: 25 000 each horizontal line, the corresponding height of the section 25, 50, 75, 100 m, etc. will be drawn with the thick line on the map. The basic contour interval is always indicated by the southern side of the frame map.
Account the terrain height of the elevation shown on our maps, is on the level of the Baltic Sea. Points of the surface height above sea level, called absolute, and the excess of one over the other point — relative excess. Mark contour — digital inscriptions on them — mean height data
points above sea level. The top of these figures is always facing upward slope.
Mark key positions from which it is better than the other you are viewing the most important sites on the map (major population centers, road junctions, passes, mountain passes, etc.), are applied in large digits.
With the contour can be determined by the slope of skates. If you look closely at Figure 33, then it is clear that the distance between two adjacent contour lines on the map, called the pledged (at a constant height of the section), varies depending on the steepness of the slope. The steeper the slope, the less congestion and, conversely, the position ramp, inception of those will be more. To conclude: the steep slopes on the map will be different density (frequency) contours, and in shallow areas will be less horizontal.
Usually to determine the steepness of the slopes in the fields placed drawing card — the scale of the pledged (Fig. 35). Along the lower base of the scale are numbers that indicate the slope of ramps in degrees. On the perpendicular to the base of the corresponding values of the pledged postponed to scale. The left side of the scale of the pledged built to the height of the main section to the right — at five times the height of the section. To determine the steepness of slope, for example, between the points a-b
(Fig. 35), we have to take a compass and put it away on the scale and read the pledged slope ramp — 3,5 °. If you need to determine the steepness of slope between horizontal thick n-m, this distance should be set aside on the right scale and steepness of slope in this case is equal to 10 °.
Knowing the properties of contours can be defined on the map and the form of various types of rays (Fig. 34). In an even slope throughout its duration will be about laying the same, they increase the concave from the top to the base, and a convex, on the contrary, laying decreases toward the base. There lay the undulating slopes vary accordingly alternation of the first three forms.
When the image of the relief on the cards, not all of its elements can be expressed horizontals. For example, slopes steeper than 40 ° can not be pronounced contours, as the distance between them will be so small that they will merge. Therefore rays having
40 ° slope and steep, are indicated with a dash contours (Figure 36). And the natural cliffs, ravines, gullies identified brown, and artificial embankments, cuttings, mounds and pits — black.
Consider the main contingent topographic signs for local objects. Localities are shown on the map with the persistence of external borders and layout (Fig. 37). Shows all the streets, squares, gardens, rivers and canals, industries, prominent buildings and structures that are important landmarks. For better visibility fireproof construction (stone, concrete, brick) are colored in orange, and neighborhoods with neognestoykimi buildings — yellow. Place names on the maps are signed strictly from west to east. Type of administrative values of the village is determined by the form and size (Fig. 37). Under the signed names of the settlements can be found indicating the number of houses in it,
and in the presence in the village district or village council in addition, the letter "PC" and "SS".
No matter how poor terrain local objects, or, conversely, is saturated in it there are always some things that stand out on the sizes of the others and are easily identified on the ground. Many of them can be used as reference points. Here are: smokestacks and outstanding building, built towers, windmills, monuments, avtokolonki, signs, kilometer posts, isolated trees, etc. (Fig. 37). Most of them are in their size can not be shown to scale, so they are portrayed on it vnemasshtabnymi signs.
Roads and crossings (Fig. 38, 1) are represented by
Labinsk — more than 200 houses. Goncharovka — 100 to 200 homes. Yuryevka — from 20 to 100 houses. * Dotoshino — less than 20 houses. Dinskaya — some yards.
Outstanding fireproof building: 1 — do not lead to scale, 2 — lead to scale.
Residential and non-residential buildings, lead to scale.
Residential and non-residential buildings, is not expressed in the map scale.
There are separate households, not expressed in the scale of the map. Ruined and dilapidated buildings that are important landmarks.
1 — Mass graves, individual graves are important landmarks, famous monuments in the mass graves.
2 — monuments and stone pillars height of more than 1 m
also vnemasshtabnymi signs. The data on the width of the roadway, road surface, specified by conventional signs, provide an opportunity to evaluate their capacity, load capacity and other Railways, depending on the number of paths marked by dashes across the road of the symbol: three lines — three-way, two lines — double track . The railways are displayed station
and — bridges of less than 3 m, b — axles 3 m or more. (K — rock material of construction. 8 — height above the water level in the numerator — length and width in meters, in the denominator — tonnage, in — floating bridges (on boats, pontoons, and rafts), d — chain and rope bridges; d — fords, 1.2 — depth, 180 — length in meters, T — (solid) the nature of soil, 0.5 — flow velocity in m / s, e — to transport, g — ferries (195 — width of the river; 4×3 — dimensions in meters ferry, 8 — tonnage) s — dam (1 — carriageways, 2 — impassable 3 — submarine, K — material construction, 250 — Length: 8 — Width of the dam, on the surface in meters: the numerator — Flag the upper level of water in the denominator — the bottom), and — gateways (wood, stone, concrete and metal), expressed in the map scale (2 — the number of cameras and their characteristics in the main course, 170 — length cameras in meters, 15 — Shutter width 3.5 — depth on the threshold of the gate), to — the arrow showing the direction and speed of the flow of rivers (170 — width of the river in meters, 1.7 — the depth of rivers and canals in meters, P — (sand) the nature of the ground floor); L — waterfalls and rapids (number indicates the height of the fall of the water in meters) m — gauges and tide gauge, H — marks the water's edge, on — the marina with berths, is not expressed in the scale of the map.
Characteristic stand in meters: the numerator — the height of the trees, in the denominator — the thickness of the right of the shot — the distance between the trees.
Coniferous forests (spruce, fir, pine, cedar, larch, etc.).
Deciduous forest (oak, beech, maple, birch, aspen, etc.).
Burnt and dead wood. Windbreaks.
Clearings in the forest 20 m wide and more, the power line along the track. Other clearing in the forest (4 — clearing width in meters, 22, 23 — number of districts). Glades, limited dry ditches. Forest roads along the track. Communication line along the track (4 — clearing width) in meters.
Shrub: 1 — some of the bushes and shrubs, 2 — continuous thickets.
Fruit and citrus orchards.
Berry Gardens (currants, raspberries and other berry bushes).
embankments, cuttings, bridges and other structures. At the bridge over 10 meters signed by its characteristics.
For example, the signature of the bridge means that the bridge length 25 m, width 6 m, and the load capacity of 5 t
Hydrography and structures associated with it (Fig. 38, 2), depending on the scale, shown with a greater or lesser detail. The width and depth
Cane and reeds on impassable swamp.
Rare forest passable swamp.
Vegetation is passable swamp.
Steppe (grass) vegetation.
Rocky surfaces (rock outcrops).
Sand smooth. Sands uneven. Sand ridges. Sand dunes. Impassable marshes. Salt marshes passable.
River signed as a fraction, which means:
120 m width of the river and its depth 4.8 m. The speed of the river is shown in the middle of the symbol arrow and a number (figure represents a rate of 0.1 meters per second, and the arrow — the direction of flow). Rivers and lakes also signed height of the water level in the low water (mark the water line) in relation to sea level. At the ford sign in numerator — the depth of the ford in meters, and the denominator — the quality of the soil (T — solid, L —
sandy, — viscous, K — rocky). For example, 1 2
br. means that Wade has a depth of 1.2 m and a rocky bottom.
Land cover (Fig. 39) is usually depicted on the maps scale signs. These include the forest, shrubs, gardens, parks, meadows, wetlands, salt marshes and sand, rocky surface gravels. In the forests indicated its characteristic. For example, in mixed forests (spruce with birch) are figures of 20 g
5.2 — this means that the average height of trees in the forest
20 m, the average thickness of 0.25 m, the average distance between the tree trunks is 5 meters.
Bogs are portrayed according to their cross on the map: passable, impassable, impenetrable (Fig. 40). Impassable marshes have depth (up to solid ground) no more than 0.3-0.4 m, which is not shown on the maps. Depth impassable and impenetrable swamps sign next to a vertical arrow indicating the location of soundings. The map corresponds to the conventional signs showing coverage of wetlands (grass, moss, reed), and the presence of the PA are trees and shrubs.
Hilly sands differ from the flat and the map represents a special symbol on. In the southern steppe and polustepnyh areas there are areas of land with dochvoy, heavily saturated with salt, which are called the salt marshes. They are wet and dry, some are impassable, and the second passable. They are marked on maps common signs — "hatching" blue. Image of salt flats, sand, swamps, land cover is shown in Figure 40.