Many people are on duty or other circumstances have often be in nature, to spend the night in hunting cabins, huts, tents and campfires under the stars. This, above all, hunters, rangers, hunters, foresters, geologists … They almost need to learn a lot and be able to arrange your life nemudreny best as possible under the circumstances. Proper rest in the "comfortable" conditions can quickly recover, protect yourself from hypothermia and many colds.
Winter night in the woods in the open air, without exaggeration, can be attributed to extreme circumstances. If we can not exclude such a situation, you need to prepare for it with dignity and organize your bed as comfortable as possible. Of course, you need a good ax, can facilitate the preparation of whipsaw (although the latter is used very rarely.) For overnight coined a number of fires, which differ from each other in structure and their properties — brightness, intensity and constancy of the heat transfer efficiency, rigor and care for permanence prochego.Luchshim winter bonfire nodya considered as the only fire, have the highest efficiency, uniform moderate burning and the ability to self-regulate. Fire under that name is described in many sources, but, unfortunately, a surfactant or wrong. According to the fire by many hunters Urals and Western Siberia. East of these regions nodyu used very often because many hunters are not familiar with its design, do not know the requirements for the material and the correct device. In the construction of a genuine nodi just two logs are stacked horizontally one above the other, the fire kindled between them and gives a uniform and prolonged heat by slow burning. A number of recommendations nodya portrayed three logs (two on the ground, one of them), it is essentially a hunting bonfire "pile", which are often arranged in five or more logs (first row of three logs on the ground, the second row of the two of them and the third — one on the top). This fire nothing to Nodier has not, because it excludes the main properties of this nodi — uniformity and duration of combustion, efficiency and self-regulation of the flame. Other recommendations nodya portrayed two logs, but the top is supported by two pairs of stakes driven into the ground. Note that nodya — best winter fire, and in the winter to hammer stakes into the frozen ground is not possible, even in the summer when the rocky soil is very difficult. With this construction, the supporting stakes quickly burn out, generally the property of self-regulation is lost flame. We have to replace them, and more than once — there can not sleep. In the original Nodier to support the upper timber is used nemudreny technique by which self-regulation is achieved by the combustion process. At the top of him and the edges are driven in two hooks (can be one in the middle). Hook length of at least 60 cm this operation is as follows: at the opposite end of the fork hook abate the wedge in the upper beam ax breaks slit into which part of the sphenoid slack blow hammered hook. Under each hook supplied crude apical part and a flexible barrel birch (aspen, rowan, willow, in a pinch, larch, pine), his butt firmly consolidated in the roots of trees, shrubs, rocks, or pressed down chock (poles, stone), these devices taganka when cooking food at the fire. Stalk length of 3 to 4 meters in diameter at the butt of 5-6 cm at the top — about 2 cm (thickness of a finger).
The main role of the Taganka — maintain balance the top, not to let it slip and provide self-burning mode. Length and width of hooks and Taganka not allow them to burn in the apex, and the thickness of the last bend allows the further burning of the upper timber, weight loss. Nodya will burn even when the top of the slab to refine. Instead, you can use a live Taganka bush cherry or ash, tucking tips of the branches under the hook, if they are placed near the fire. Self-regulation of the combustion takes place as follows: the upper beam supporting a flexible and constantly rocking Taganka by increasing or decreasing the gap between it and the bottom log is the one, then the other. If there is no gap between the logs and increasing its more than 5-6 cm burning stops, the optimal combustion — with a gap of 2-3 cm or focusing on burning coals. The constant change in the gaps between the logs of different parts to create the conditions for even burning the entire length nodi. Bonfire will be lit and provide uniform heat for as long as it burns upper log. Duration of combustion depends on the thickness of workpieces with a diameter of logs at least 40 cm fire burns through the long winter night. Lower log burns slowly and does not require replacement, if it is replaced upper combustion spare and scrape it hooks and they are brought under the same Taganka. Winter night lasts 12-14 hours, if not nodya kindled in the evening, just before bed, it burns up in the morning without having to change the top. Device to camp overnight with nodi should begin about an hour before dark. In daylight easier to find a more convenient location and close to its appropriate suhostoinu. Fueled by ordinary fire. Put a pot for boiling tea or a solid food is cut down and raskryazhevyvaetsya into three equal parts butt hand selected wood. Dip direction trunk provides the correct location Zaruba (gashes). Choosing the length of ridges is usually limited to the growth of man. The first of the two log logs are the basis nodi, third left to reserve. Fire place and couches free of snow and fallen trees, and if the snow depth of 1.5-2.0 meters, they are mounted on two cross laid on the snow wet poles (better logs). Fire itself is being built in the previously described sequence, but additionally to the lower beam at its edges hammered two raw wedge that support raw pole. Wedges are driven at a distance of about 10 cm from the top of the log. This device is used to place embers from the previously kindled the fire, fanned them nodya fastest. Of course, you can use not only coal, but also bark, sticks, zastrugannye lamb sticks, thin pieces of wood, any dry combustible material. During kindling nodi would keep the flame along the entire length between the logs, the main task — to light the contact surfaces of the lower and upper logs. The best combustion conditions are created by the gap to 5-6 cm between the logs. It is achieved by placing two dry pieces of wood of the same thickness, actually relies on them the upper ridge. The logs are perpendicular to the axis of nodi 30-40 cm from the edges. Themselves have edges, especially along the campfire, you can not put any logs or wedges as they delay the combustion rate in this place, prevent sedimentation of the upper ends of the logs, self-regulation of the flame stops. With the right location for the required clearance firewood flame is maintained at the same rate and at the ends and in the middle nodi. The complete combustion of firewood logs do coals and the fire no longer requires care. Practice shows that the incitement nodi before the process of self-regulation is spent no more than 25-30 minutes. In case of an unfortunate choice of material for a morning or nodi vigil at a brighter fire can prepare in a stock pile of dry wood. It is very important to choose the right material for nodi, it will not fail and will show their best properties subject to a number of requirements. The best qualities of wood has a number of softwood cedar, pine and larch. Spruce strong spark, creating a risk of burn clothing. Fir burns quickly and gives a bit of heat. You can use some hardwoods — poplar, aspen, but a meeting with them in the Siberian taiga — a rare phenomenon. Of these conifers preferable cedar, pine is often found too resinous, larch and fanned harder as more solid wood, harder raskryazhevyvaetsya. By the choice of wood for nodi be treated very seriously — especially, it should be dry, and without thick resinous knots inside the barrel. Dry tree is defined by the following characteristics: it must be at the root of a whole apex (crown), not to have the bark and skeletal branches. Typically, as the drying of wood is released simultaneously from the bark and skeletal branches, but sometimes last a longer period. Bark prevents the natural process of drying, the tip is broken (the tip of it) during the summer rains the moisture seeps into the barrel until the butt end is held there and leads to decay. Of course, the tree should not be hollow. Excessively resinous wood burns very quickly, it is barely enough to midnight. The remaining knots inside the barrel (over 3 cm) burn much slower upper log hangs on them, disrupting the process of self-regulation. The process of recovering from the removal of unburned knots with an ax, but that distracts from restful sleep. It is noted that in the dense forest boughs forming a crown of the tree, located high on the edge of the forest far below their remains in the interior of the barrel is almost inevitable. It is very important to choose the right place to stay and near the right dry wood, this is possible only by daylight. In the dark, almost inevitable inconveniences that interfere with normal rest, sleep and gain new energy for the work ahead. Taken into account when choosing a camp weather. In clear weather it is selected in the high water, in the wind and snow — at the bottom of the valleys of small rivers, the gully. On elevations slightly warmer air movement has a constant direction — from top to bottom along the main slope areas. At the bottom is easier to stay in Leeward place (in a recess in the cliff, rocks …). Bonfire should not be placed under thick canopy of trees, which is always snow, which under the action of smoke and warm air can befall man.
Plan for overnight camp is shown in Figure 2. A man is behind the screen (the wall). With frequent night at the winter fire people use portable screens. As the screen (a length of 2-3 m and a height of 1-1.5 m) can be a thin tarp, heavy cotton fabric or other lightweight material. In the summer, good plastic film, but in the winter when severe frosts it becomes brittle and breaks. Screen cracked down on thin sticks in the corners tied with string. In the absence of a laptop screen is arranged wall of the material at hand — can be used convicts on poles placed spruce branches, put out the board and so on. If the top person warm fire, the bottom is hard to guard against cold sensation coming from the frozen ground and snow. Some hunters in the form of mats, heaters use the skins of musk deer, roe deer, dogs, sheep, and the like. The first lighter in weight and more likely to retain heat and protect the body from the frozen substrate. The skin is placed on a layer of spruce branches (preferably pine), which covers a number of dry stout poles. For this kind of couch and soft, and warm. Several nochevschikov place of the future heated couches powerful fire, but it is a lost cause, because warm the frozen ground at a decent depth for 2-3 hours is not possible, and the layer of 5-10 cm immediately freezes. In addition, this procedure requires a large amount of wood and, therefore, the overhead power. In the absence of a portable mat can be cracked stump of the same tree to lay a board of foot bindings, outerwear. Of course, going to be tough, but warm. Getting ready for bed, you must perform a number of rules. Take off their shoes, clothes and dried by the fire. Legs hide socks (best of felts) or foot wraps. If sleep is shod disrupted the normal circulation, and shoes can burn or spoil so that its continued use is not possible. In a dream you can not feel excessive heat. Nochuyuschy is back to Nodier, better on the right side. Outerwear is used as a blanket, covering the knees, shoulder and head. Cap is not removed. First freeze knees, if you do not breathe the warm air is cooled nose and face will not fall asleep. It is difficult to lie all night on one side, sometimes have to turn on the back or the other side. I note that nodya — individual fire at inn couple couches mounted with two of the sides, and the screen is constructed in a semicircle, covering the head and front of the phone. Lodging at three one will be worse off. In very severe frosts can mount two nodi. To become a supporter described the fire should ever sleep beside him, with his own hands to gather and rekindle nodyu, following the advice described. For the first experience arrange this fire in summer or winter in the hunting cabin.