Campfire

For a fire is preferable to choose a place protected from the wind, at least 5 m from the b-tents, trees, shrubs, so that they are not sparks. Over the fire should not be a branch, and bottom — protruding from the ground roots. Never make a fire in the pine saplings, near grain fields on the layer of dry grass, pine needles, moss. The flames can spread them with winds When the device fire on stone placers in the woods or on peat fire will go in depth, and even well Requests fire after several hours can spark a fire. It is advisable to use an old fireplace. If not, remove the desired location turf and put it into the shadow of the earth up.

Near future fire within 0.5-1 m clean earth from all that can catch fire from the sparks — dry pine needles and leaves.

Fire can ignite quickly when put in an empty tin can, surrounded by branches in a pyramid, paper (cloth), with the fat, or diesel fuel, and ignited.

Should not light a fire under a tree covered with snow, as the heat snow can collapse, and extinguish it.

Kindling better to collect along the way, and not in the parking lot (halt), where it can not be.

To make a fire in the snow, it is necessary to chop raw 06.07 perches thickness of 8-10 cm and a length of 1.5 m at the right place and compacted snow on it is placed close to one another perch. On them and make a fire. Such a method can be used for short-term parking.

Until the flame flares up, cover him from the rain and wind — say, for example, someone is holding the top of the tent awning or cloak, do a wall of rocks or sticks. Fire from the kindling should concern not yet burning chips. Then slowly insert pieces of wood thicker. Do not rush to put a large piece of wood — it does not light up and extinguish the fire. Do not immediately jump firewood pile, and place at intervals that had the air flow to the flame.

Apply for lighting gasoline is dangerous and inefficient — it ignites instantly, like an explosion and quickly burns, unable to dry and burn the wood.

The most popular types of fires are as follows (Figure 8). "Shelter" is commonly used for lighting, cooking,

Open fires

food in a container or in the rain. "Well", "star", "Taiga" give a nice glow and form a lot of coal, they are easy to cook for 2-3 buckets at a time. "Nodya" or "three logs" burns equally fiercely for several hours without additional fuel (with a diameter of 25-40 cm logs — all night). It serves mostly for heating during overnight stay without tents. The easiest way to arrange that. First on three straight, without branches, logs make numerous hacks with an ax. Then rake along the already burning fire or coals, put the firewood there, small pieces of wood, and when they ignite — two logs harvested from an acute angle to the direction of the wind at a distance of about half their diameter, so that the coals were mostly between the logs. Once they flare up, put on top of the third. People are on the windward side. As the burning logs, turning them (for example, using two axes, stuck on the ends logs), so that they once again evenly placed together.

Just making a fire starts with the ignition firing. Kindling — a material capable of a short time to give a large enough flame to from him engaged in very thin dry branches thick with matches. Then enclose branches more, approaching the thickness of a pencil. When the flare and these, put the following, thick as a finger. So, gradually, put the fire more and thicker wood. Clearly, all wood should always be dry.

Usually goes for kindling paper, at least — birch bark. We need only remember that making kindling bark from birch trees growing near the camp, is unacceptable. Bark usually stock up for the future, when, during the transition are rotten or fallen tree. Experienced travelers often go without paper or bark. As they use kindling or a very thin sliver (almost chips), which are taken from the middle of the dry logs, split lengthwise, or that tourists call cobweb — small dry twigs eaten. They can almost always be found at a large fir, if you look under the overhanging branches of the trunk.

Kindling usually laid directly on the ground, and on top of it put twigs or splinter from the first batch of fuel, but not all harvested cobweb or splinter, but only some of them, so that no kindling was littered with them.

Kindling should burn the bottom — then it all burned to the end. If you light the kindling on top, it often burns only the upper part of it, and then the flame goes out: the fire spreads down very badly. Kindling in the form of beams or webs splinters burn better, holding the weight. The thinner twigs or splinters, the easier they light up, but the faster they burn through. Those who go for firewood or for the first batch of fuel, comparable to the thickness of a match and burn very often longer than the match. Therefore, the first two or three minutes to all the time very quickly to lay a new fire and a new fuel. This is not to throw it in the fire at random. It is necessary to lay the fuel to the fire so that between the branches and sliver or chocks were clearances required for air. Then the fire will flare up well.

When the spider broke, it is necessary to resort to the rest of the stock of cobwebs. Cobweb on the burning placed several branches of the next batch of fuel (for example, a thickness of a pencil). Intense heat, they will serve as a fuse for the lot of firewood. It gradually increases the thickness of the branches and logs, is laid on the fire.

Open fires can be considered to be finished when he received a small handful of hot embers. As long as the fire did not form the coals, he can go off very easily.

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