Equipment: heaters

Petrol Primus widely used in sports campaigns. Despite its apparent simplicity and ease of use, they require careful and thoughtful treatment. First of all you need to learn how they work.


In a cold Primus petrol rises by hygroscopicity wick from the reservoir into the column. Primus column to fuel heated by burning under it (in a special cup or in a groove on the tank) any combustible material (alcohol, benzene, hexene, tallow, etc.), the flame and burner covers. Gasoline in the wick evaporates, couples are heated in a column. Breaking out of the nozzle, it is mixed with air in the burner and burn, burner in heated.


Burner Copper (brass), it has a high thermal conductivity, and being closely connected to the column heats it during the primus.


Violation of the density of the compound — one of the most common faults Primus. (The burner can be loosely tightened on the thread, the thread can be disrupted, the burner is bent or shattered. This violates the thermal contact with the burner column.) Column acts as a heat conductor, through which the burner heats the tank with gasoline.


Now gasoline evaporation occurs not only in the column, but in the hot tank. Internal pressure is rising, gasoline fumes rush the column.


Breaking out of the nozzle, they | thin stream beating the red-hot cup burner and heat up even more in this case, and the burner is partially cooled. Jet gasoline vapors break on a cup burner. This is necessary for the preparation of a gas mixture. Cup burner loosely connected to the burner, and sometimes lost. Without her primus can not work. Firmly attach the burner cup with extras not. This "correction" violate the thermal regime of the burner. The latter is designed very thin, even the accumulation of carbon deposits on the burner impairs Primus.


EQUIPMENT: Heating Elements




Petrol kerosene stove to operate at a certain temperature. This should be considered when

the design of various devices to install stoves and alteration covers.

Primus, shown in Fig. 21, does not work with covers, which provides additional insulation and heating tank. Here are two of this type of kerosene stove set close beside each other additionally heated, overheat and "go to the dressing," ie combustion rate is constantly increasing (primus threatening "growl"). At this point, with no need to treat rudely throw the tent, tromp in the snow, you just have to put on an overheated tank ball of snow, putting her through cutouts casing and primus just "calm down." Summer should be carefully pour cold water tank is not filling with the burner.




EQUIPMENT: Heating Elements




In Fig. 22 shows petrol primus with side tank. It has a mechanical device for

cleaning nozzle inside and does not need primusnyh needles. In its position Primus have access to free tank of petrol, and if necessary, it is easy to cool.

It is very easy to use and transport kerosene stove, but stand to set the pan has too low. When used with a wide bottom pan flame hits the tank and it overheats. True, the tank is in this case a special screen (the screen must be raised into position), but it is not enough. Racks for pots can be extended to make them retractable,


Box of Primus can be converted to weight loss, but only so that in the position of primus was open on all sides.


Petrol Primus both types equipped with safety valves (petrol tanks in traffic). Cork tank, cap nut and nozzle valve must be tightly pursed, preserve integrity.


Condition for the successful use of Primus — the availability of suitable cookware rastaivaniya snow and cooking.


EQUIPMENT: Heating Elements



Successful design primusnoy dishes created F. Nansen ski trip to the North Pole in 1895 (Figure 23). His "kitchen unit" will greatly increase the efficiency of the stove, and travelers in 120 days campaign burned a total of 20 liters of kerosene (they had a kerosene oil stove), ie less than 170 cm ³ per day, and had hot food and drinking water in abundance (for two people).


Caloric content of gasoline and kerosene about the same. Cost effectiveness is determined by Primus fuel mixture combustion efficiency

and the ability to adjust the intensity of burning. Modern small gasoline stove, apparently no worse than a kerosene stove, which had Nansen. The expedition Nansen primus burned per day to 85

g of fuel per person, but in the practice of modern sports such travel cost of stoves do not reach because of the lack of suitable cookware.


Calculation of the amount of fuel for the trip can be made only on the basis of experimental brews, and the experimental conditions (air temperature, the initial temperature of the fuel obduvaemost wind, etc.) must comply with the most stringent poxodnym conditions. In addition, be aware that burning kerosene stove may deteriorate (decrease its efficiency). If there are user-friendly and easy plastic canisters for modern gasoline fuel primus — the most easy and convenient camping heater. It is quite reliable and safe in an attentive and careful operation, otherwise you should use kerosene

"Economic" primus. (Use of gasoline in them is unacceptable!)

Gas heaters lose the weight petrol and kerosene. Caloric gas slightly higher than that of gasoline and kerosene, but gas storage needed metal cylinders that are much heavier walled plastic canister of gasoline.


In moderate and severe frosts use standard gas appliances is almost impossible: the pressure of gas in cylinders falls too much. This is caused by the gas temperature in the cylinder, which can be much lower than the ambient temperature, because LNG is supercooled by evaporation when the cylinder valve is opened.


Hypothermia gas more noticeable the smaller tank capacity. It is possible that the use of large balloons (5 kg of gas and over) will create a camping gas appliance, capable of working under the most extreme cold. Gas appliances with automatic heating cylinders (like gasoline kerosene stove) is not present, they would have been too dangerous *.


* Home-made gas appliances is not allowed. Used to fuel gas cylinders other purpose dangerous. For example, the filling of butane-propane mixture of poorly washed oxygen tank will explode.


If Primus (or gas burners) are used to heat the tent, it should be noted that the combustion of 1 kg of hydrocarbon fuels (gasoline, kerosene, butane, propane, etc.) produces about 1.5 kg of water. To avoid additional moisture tent and get ventilation, should be combined with a tent primus stove (make a fume hood), but the thermal regime of the stoves at the same should not be violated. Chimney is complete and the kitchen unit. In the campaigns, the routes which are part of the forest zone, in part treeless, we have to have and woodburning stove and stove. This opens interesting possibilities of their combination.


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