Tactics – a set of tools and techniques to achieve the goal. The main objective of the tourism campaign – ascent with minimal effort and with maximum safety. Around the two main defining goals depending on the situation, any other goals and objectives, but the choice of tactics they do not have a decisive impact.
Choice of tactics determined by the physical and technical preparation of tourists. It is impossible to build a tactically correct route without considering the actual physical, technical, moral and volitional training team members. Choice of tactics of the campaign carried out in the study area during the campaign and the development of its route. With a plan to overcome the ascent of the known natural barriers, based on the experience and capabilities of the group. During the development of the route should be considered rational tactics. This requires good knowledge of complex parts of the route, and understand in what ways and means they will be overcome (ie first tourists "go" route mentally). Thus, is a campaign schedule that is affected parts of the route, their characteristics, and how to overcome the approximate travel time.
When developing a campaign tactic tourists use all data collected under study area and route march.
The more of this information, the clearer you can plan a passage. During the campaign tactics of the movement may change in accordance with the revised data on the nature of natural barriers, the physical condition of participants, the weather conditions.
By construction, tourism routes are divided into linear and circular (Fig. 33). In the first case, the start and end points of the route does not match, in the second case – the same. The second option is convenient because it is easier to buy return tickets, participants can leave the starting point of the march unnecessary things. Ultimately the choice is determined by the type of route aims and objectives of the campaign.
Do not deviate from the main route, the team can make a radial output to a point for local history jobs, sightseeing, etc. The group then returned to the route and continues to the end point.
In order to ensure the safety of members of the group in the development of the route provides a fallback in case of withdrawal from the primary route in case of an emergency situation (illness of the participant, the impossibility of passage crossing pass or organization, etc.). Such options should include and not very complicated routes.
One element of the route as well as the safety factor is the organization dnevok – rest days en route to recuperate, exploration of unknown areas, implementation of local history assignments. Day's rest is also a time to spare in case, for whatever reason, the group cried out schedule. Then the time scheduled for a day's rest, is used to deal with the backlog. To the same effect are scheduled reserve days (usually on a little-known routes or assumption of bad weather, such as in the off-season).
Another one of the tactics – Getting products to the route in order to reduce the output of weight backpack. It is also possible on the neck porterage "hook." This option is used when it is impossible to overcome the obstacles in full gear, or in the event of illness or injury of participants. The group stops and the load carried in parts. Thus, in particular, receives water tourists, lifting boats in the upper reaches of the mountain rivers.
The order of movement of the route. Proper organization of the movement provides the rhythm of the body, the dosage of physical activity, the clarity in the actions of the group that generally has a positive effect on the safety of the route. The order of movement is determined by the terrain, the presence and nature of the difficult areas, the presence of weak parties.
Usually, the first is a guide – the commander or vehicle (co) group. At the end of the column – normally. Usually made by the director of the weakest members – are girls or one of the weaker (diseased) guys. Children should clearly explain the function of the guide and trailing in the column. The guide can go at their own pace, a little in front, and there is no need to constantly chase the entire column. He rarely stops to navigate, or goes a bit forward for exploration, ie comes in ragged pace. The column also needs to keep an even pace, aligning themselves with the weakest.
Responsible role closing. Entrust this role has at least some experience of the member or, if the group is not the most responsible of the boys. Its mission – to make sure that the group does not stretch, so no one behind, to help those lagging behind.
There is a clear rule – for closing should not be members of the group. If someone needs to stop closing defines – the entire group to stop or stay together. This he must inform the team leader. And only the decision.
And where on the move are head and his deputy? They define their place, depending on the situation. Under difficult conditions, orientation of them is the head of the column with a guide, they are ahead in overcoming natural obstacles in the middle of the column, in the normal flow of the group. You can go for a while with a closing, as he often grumbles, complains that comes last. By the way, going to the end of the column, the head sees well all children.
It is desirable to avoid unnecessary calls on the route. Conversations children unwittingly knocked the breath, tires easily. When talking waning attention. A child may stumble, miss branch at face level. This inevitably leads to injury.
Touring system. The most convenient movement of a group – a column by one. However, if the group goes on a country road, you can prevent the free movement regime. But it is at the head, an additional concern – avoid walking race, or, conversely, to prevent stretching of the group, due to the upcoming talks, started uchastiikami together. When walking on trails in the woods, in the mountains should be only the column, keeping the head of the group specified interval.
Study, exploration of complex sections of the route. Before forking paths, roads, changing direction, emerging obstacles (rivers, swamps, ravines, etc.) guide stops the group and arrange in consultation with the head of intelligence. To clarify the position, direction of movement leader can send in multiple directions groups of 2 – 3 people, after instructing them to determine the time of exploration and return back – the big time. Before heading off to parties closely examine the possibility of overcoming it and refine tactics. We should see if there is the need to overcome this obstacle, or you can work around it for an easier and safer way.
When driving may rebuild the column caused complicated plots: descents, climbs, showering etc. This decision made by the head group, and the participants are required to accurately follow his instructions. One of the simplest evolutions – column, which assigns to every girl is a boy to provide her the necessary assistance.
Round-up and adjustment of a day's plan for the next day. Clarity of action for a day's laid in advance: the first time – in the design of the schedule of the movement at home, the second time – the night before the next day. After analysis of the results of the day's leader, commander and conductor specify the following part of the route and the tactics of its passage. In this case, adjustments may be made, taking into account weather conditions, the physical condition of the group. The updated policy is brought to all members of the group, for only imagining the problem, the trip participants are meaningful, and not meekly metered kilometers. Here, as elsewhere, it is worth saying a winged Suvorov "Every soldier must know the maneuver!".
Technique tourism – these are the rules and techniques of movement and to overcome natural obstacles encountered on the route. The basic rule to plot the route and traffic on it – if possible, it is better to bypass the obstruction.
Natural barriers can be classified into:
relief forms (plain, mountains, ravines);
vegetation type (light and dense, walkable, rugged, tall, elfin)
coating: (ground, rocky trail or road, herbaceous cover, hummocky);
drainage (streams, rivers, wetlands).
When driving through the woods to use incidental country roads, clearings, trails and glades. On the path, even hardly detectable, go much easier than directly – in azimuth. Besides trail usually goes around obstacles or cross them in a convenient location.
When driving through the dense undergrowth is necessary to hold the branches so they do not face lashed overtaking. With the same purpose of the group should go with an interval of 3 to 5 meters, which allows you to not lose sight of in front. Going ahead to warn voice about the location: wells protruding tree roots, lying across the trail logs, slippery ground.
Do not step, if possible, on fallen trees. First, you can slip and, second, advancing to the tree, and then, sitting down on the ground, we do unnecessary work, useless expend their energy. Better work around fallen trees or step over, and the group does not stop and, most importantly, do not lose momentum. More accurately it is necessary to go through the thicket, if there is a need to move in azimuth.
Covered with deep gullies, gully, often littered with windbreak, stones, with flowing along the bottom of streams to be overcome by choosing the most gentle slopes.
Quite difficult to move around in the tundra zone and midlands, where it grows elfin – bush decumbent shrub with stiff branches and a strong root system. He can be quite low, and sometimes reaches a height taller than a person (such as rhododendron). When entering into such growths should identify in advance the direction and stick to it. Clothing of this should cover all parts of the body, pants better tuck under socks (you can prepare for this special "flashlight" that protect your feet and pants). In the same way we should act while driving on dwarf plants.
The movement in the forest has its own characteristics. They are much smaller than in the woods, trails and the more roads more rubble down wind. This complicates and slows movement. Moreover, complicated and orientation on the route. When driving you should try to choose the more free space, bypassing blockages. If this is not possible, then overcome them carefully, helping each other.
On the route there are other natural barriers – the swamp. Overcoming them requires considerable physical and mental effort.
Divided into low-lying swamps, bogs, and "hanging". Marshes formed in flood plains, overgrown with water and feed mainly groundwater. Upland (moss) bogs are more common in the watersheds and are fed by precipitation. "Hanging" swamps are more common in the mountains, on the slopes. They are formed by the release of keys and precipitation.
On cross-classified impassable swamps, impassable and impenetrable. Impassable swamp covered with thick grass interspersed with sedge. Impassable swamp covered with moss, among which water is visible, the grass grows cotton grass, thick bush willow, alder and birch. Move through this swamp, one over mossy strips and ridges overgrown with low bushes.
Impassable swamps are very dangerous. They are covered with reeds and floating grass. This swamp is better to bypass, even after losing at this time. If we have to overcome it, be sure to thorough exploration. Two tourists, without backpacks, produce intelligence. When driving necessarily each participant must have a pole that is held in a horizontal position. Thus it is necessary to go strictly on the trail scouts leg raise smoothly, without jerks. Safer way lay over bumps, occurring around shrubs and tree trunks. You can not jump from one tussock to another (bad service plays a tourist stage competition "Hummocks", where participants actually jump on them).
Most dangerous swamp – overgrowing pond whose surface is covered with bright green grass. It is virtually impassable. It should be avoided.
To be safe when driving through the swamp tourists should keep ready the pole in a horizontal position, loosen the straps of backpacks. Dips in the mire to quickly pull up the pole to her and lay on his chest. If the tourist himself unable to rise, then it should not make unnecessary movements to further avoid tearing splavninu. You can not allow for this abrupt and jerky movements and lose composure. Dips should provide assistance quickly, with no fuss and very carefully. You must first Zagat place near poles and branches. Then carefully approach the victim, to help remove the backpack and get out.
Hollows (pit depth of 50 cm or more) are more convenient to pass on a pole, which are sequentially stacked in the direction of travel. As they were closing their release passed forward. Walk on slippery causeway should be carefully based on the opportunities in the pole.
If intelligence has determined that under water hard ground, then we can move forward in the footsteps of the master. Stir in any case should be smooth, the self sixth reserved.
When driving through the swamp should always follow the direction of movement, to celebrate landmarks on his way. These markings may be useful to return if further progress is not possible through the swamp.
Go to the swamp in shoes and clothing. Pants must be filled to not cling and do not interfere with walking. The contents of the backpack to be reasonably protected from moisture.
We must remember that in the off season and winter swamps freeze evenly. With the passage of this time of year should also be very careful and cautious.
Even the seemingly simple route on flat terrain has to overcome various natural obstacles: the steep ravines and rivers, rivers, swamps, etc. With the passage of these plots are inevitable fall of participants, which results are often quite serious injuries. To ensure the safety of these areas should include measures to prevent the fall of the participants.
Insurance – a set of actions, practices and regulations that prevent or arrest the participant if interrupted by a complex plot.
The simplest form of insurance is a lanyard, when ensuring the safety of the participant performs. The simplest technique is to use a self-insurance when driving on slopes alpenstocks. He is a strong stick length increase tourist with a pointed tip – shtychkom (for reliability shty make metal-chok).
Group insurance provides for the safety of the participants, with the participation of members of the group. Set of the first and second types of insurance is a combined insurance.
Lanyard when working in hazardous area (on the edge) (Fig. 34) is seat-party where wearing harness, a carabiner to the reference loop, made from the end of the main rope with a diameter of 10 mm, tied around the base (wood, stone) .
When going up and down the slope uses vertical rails (fixed ropes). If necessary, they can be fixed without tension or stretch tight. The self by using a safety system using grasps node (Fig. 35). When the traverse slope railing can be both horizontal and oblique. In the first case, the participant is attached to the railing with the rifle (Figure 36), the second – by grasping the host to the fall does not slide along the inclined rails.
In crossing the self is party to the horizontal mounting rails by a safety harness and "mustache" with a carbine.
Group insurance can be of two types – lower and upper.
With the rise of the first term of the steep lower insurance is used, with suitable security ropes to the party from the bottom (Fig. 37). To reduce the distance the fall party at disrupting weed out the rope through intermediate points of insurance (hinges, hooks, tabs, etc.), through the rifles. These items are purchased insurance so that in the event of a fall party is not in the position of the pendulum.
When belaying rope comes to the party from above, and the point of insurance is not the insured party to the chest. In this case, fear can be at the bottom, but the fear of the rope passes through the top of the rifle insurance.
Uphill, downhill, cross-arms and crossed ravines security ropes attached to breast rifle crosshairs interlocked safety systems insured party. Attaching a safety rope to the "USU" the self is a mistake. Insuring party should work gloves and be on the self, except in cases where insurance is out of the safe zone, located below the danger point. Security ropes must be issued through the point of insurance so that the angle between its branches at the point of insurance was not more than 90 °.
Insuring the participant must provide a permanent hold a safety rope. With insurance through a carbine or braking device (support) hand belayer must be located no closer than 20 cm from the rifle or device. The free end of a safety rope should be attached to a pole or the people at the self or in the safe zone located below the dangerous section.
Insurance is incorrect, in which the rope is given to excessive slack. It sagged below the knee insured party to going up and down, slack, allowing the water to touch the rope crossing and sag, eliminating the possibility of retaining member, lost her balance on the beam.
Support is carried out by hanging, and the ferry crossings with perilnoy insurance and is used to pull the emergency lost the ability of independent movement participants coast (Fig. 38). Can be used to accompany the main and auxiliary ropes.
Support for the organization in the accompanying rope knot forming a loop. This node with rifle vstegivaetsya in the safety system (in the breast or in the crosshairs of safety carbine "mustache") participant.
When moving party to escort the ferry rope must be held (granted or choose) the people at the beach (it should work in mittens). The free ends of the accompanying fixed ropes on poles or on the people at the self. Accompanying the rope should not touch the water.
Can not be too quick to choose accompanying rope is threatened odergivaniya party with ferry or injury.
At the organization of insurance is important to choose the right place. It should be spacious to insure freedom of movement, to have a support for mounting rails (strong trees, rocks). From the organization of insurance is desirable to have an overview of all to overcome obstacles. Place insurance organizations need to prepare: remove small stones sticking small stumps, broken off the lower branches of trees. If necessary, the bearing fit lanyard loop.
The movement in the mountains. Mountains cover much of the territory of Russia and its beauty attracts not only tourists and mountain climbers, and hikers who have mastered the basic techniques to overcome obstacles on flat routes.
Collection of irregularities of the Earth's crust, of all shapes and sizes, called relief. Mountain relief is very diverse, as a result of the nature of the various geomorphic processes: tectonic, volcanic, erosion (damage due to external environmental factors).
In the mountainous terrain are following general form (Fig. 39).
Mountains – large areas of highly elevated terrain with multiple dismemberment and sharp fluctuations of heights, formed by tectonic processes.
Foothills – cooler peripheral parts of the mountain ranges and ridges, with hilly and mountainous terrain.
Peak – the highest part of the massif, mountain or upland ridge crest.
Ridge – line-extended series of mountain peaks, connected depressions (bridges, saddles) bounded slopes inclined in opposite sides of the ridge. Ridges are usually dissected valleys.
Crest – a line which is the junction of the opposite slopes, ridge. Distinguish acute strokes, round, jagged, sawtooth.
Saddle – lowering the ridge between the two peaks. Often, this reduction is used as the most convenient way to overcome the ridge, moving from one valley to another and is called the pass.
Slope – the broad side of the mountain.
Valley – elongated depressions between ridges. Valley (the result of the destructive activities of glaciers and rivers – erosion) by location divided into longitudinal ridges running parallel and transverse, cross-axis of the latter. In appearance distinguish valley wide, flat bottom – floodplain. More common V-shaped valleys with steep slopes and narrow down. The slopes of the great steepness call gorges. The narrowest of these forms – krutostennye narrow bottom, the width of the water flow – canyons and gorges.
Scree – Cluster of rock fragments resulting from the destruction of the mountains. Distinguish between large, small and medium-sized debris. By age they can be fresh and old. The first stone is agile and represent an increased risk when driving on them.
In the mountains, even moving around the valley, tourists are almost always on the side, making a climb or descent. This requires some skill movement. Going up the trail, bending at the knee, foot on the ground put the whole foot. For better adhesion
tion sole struntom socks unfold slightly outwards. Through small stones lying on the road, it is best to step, if that is impossible, stepping carefully, do not straighten the leg completely, not to raise your center of gravity, making useless work.
On uncool downhill leg pose, almost without bending, first on the heel, then the whole foot. Housing should lean back slightly. The steep slopes are on bent legs, short steps, placing his foot on the whole foot. On very steep slopes have to put a foot across the slope, with an emphasis on welt shoe.
The energy used when driving on slopes are greater than when driving on the plains. Added to this tension, the lack of oxygen in the air. Therefore the rate of movement in the mountains below, halts should be organized more often, focusing on the state of the weakest members. The steep slopes make frequent stops and short (1 – 2 min) for rest and recovery of the respiratory rhythm. You do not need to sit down, relax while standing with his back to the slope, based on alpenstock.
When driving on the grassy slopes of the danger is primarily associated with a weak grip soles, building, grass-covered (especially if it is wet). When lifting the grassy slope foot put the whole foot to enhance grip soles with grass. As the steepness of the slope toes increasingly deploying (lifting "herringbone"). During the descent leg put the whole foot, legs slightly bent. When gradients should try to use each firm lies a stone, a pothole, a bump as a step, putting them a leg horizontally.
When reciprocation slope (movement across it) to the slope of the inner foot legs put the whole foot across the slope and slightly up on it, foot outside leg – the entire sole, toe turning down the slope, the stronger the steeper the slope. When changing directions reciprocation ("streamers") should take a step forward outside leg, putting it more up the slope, then deploy the inner leg at an angle to the first few up the hill so that the feet were in the "Tree" as the way up. Then you put the foot, as in crossing the slope, and to move in the opposite direction.
Climb up the side of the group should be in the tracks, with an average interval of 1.5 m on a slope of 25 – 30 ° ascend and descend short zigzags, "serpentine", situated as close as possible to each other. In this case, the manager must see to it that were not going ahead at a regular interval of "streamers" of going back (when running – on the contrary) to prevent the discharge of stones reaching the top (Fig. 40). A guide to choose the way to potholes, animal trails, located one above the other.
When driving need alpenstock lanyard or ice ax. Near the slope shaft alpenstocks hand covered in top 20 – 25 cm from shtychka the other hand – at the top end, covering the shaft, palm up. Shtychok alpenstocks thus directed toward the slope above the points of support legs (Fig. 41). If the tourist slipped or tripped, it should slightly grouped, shtychkom stretch into the hillside, has created a further, third point of support. In the fall you need to quickly, not letting alpenstock of hand, lower arm below the staff (but not bringing them together) and strongly shtychkom stretch into the ground to hold sliding down (Fig. 42). If there is a fall to the side, back, should try to roll over on his stomach, legs, thus it is necessary to push, preventing rotation of the body, and further slowing toed shoes.
On steep slopes should follow the rule of the two points of support. Alpenstock tolerated at a time when both feet are on the anvil. Leg tolerated when there is reliance on the other foot, and shtychok alpenstocks rests on a slope.
Continued compliance with the rules of two support points should be observed on the steep slopes, slippery surfaces and grass. In this case, by changing the direction of the "streamer" and changing hand position. Do not make the slope of the body to the side slope of the motion, it only decreases stability.
Traffic on the scree is a risk of falling stones, falling by relying on unstable rocks. It is easier and safer to move debris from the compacted fine or, better yet, large stones (old talus). The signs of such debris is more dark surface stones, similar in color to the surrounding rocks, and growing on the stones of lichens. Foot on the stone should be put closer to the slope, so as not to disturb its stability. Reliance on alpenstock here is unacceptable.
Loosely lying on the rocks the mean "live" talus should go very carefully so as not to cause a rockfall. About rocks stones are usually stronger, but the probability of rock fall from the cliffs. When driving "serpentine" should strictly follow to one party over the other was not. Passage of each site should be zigzag the entire group, only then can you change direction. If it is impossible passing obliquely talus or "serpentine" group raised (or lowered) straight up. The group should move tight formation, without breaks. With such an approach, even if someone snagged a rock and he will fly down, you do not have time to gain more speed and knock the participant.
Traffic on the snowfields. Slopes covered with snow, not unusual for the mountains. Some of the passes that use the route passing tourists, may be covered with snow, often tourists to cross snowfields glaciers.
Snowy slopes carry the risk of avalanches. Therefore, when preparing to overcome the snow slope group leader must objectively assess the state of the snow cover to develop tactics of passing this area. The possibility of avalanches in hazardous areas increases as the heating
tion of snow sun. It is therefore preferable to pass such areas early in the morning.
At the same time, if there is no danger of avalanches in the area, it is best to go for it when it warms up a little sun. In this case, the snow is softer, it is easier to cut steps. The team leader, exempting children in the snow, should have sufficient experience of going through the snowy slopes.
On a ski slope must be used alpenstocks or ice axes. On hard snow and firn (speaking of ice) must have shoes with special soles – Tricon and cats. Rules alpenstock (ax) are the same as on a grassy slope. Just worth bearing in mind that sliding on snow is much faster than the grass. Therefore act in the event of a need to quickly and without panic.
Choosing the path of movement depends on the state of the snow cover, if risk of avalanches, slope angle, etc. By uncool hill climb straight up "herringbone", cutting steps inner rim shoe. At a steep slope, the risks of an avalanche, you can climb a zigzag manner, kicking steps parallel to another one. Thus it is necessary to use alpenstock or keep it at the ready (Figure 43).
When lifting the forehead on steep sections of small ski slopes step knock toes, leaning on alpenstock by sticking it in front of him. Alpenstock transfer to the new pivot point can only be firmly standing with both feet on the steps.
Uncool to have to go down the slope back to him, making small steps and vminaya heels snow. In heavy snow knock heels step. Alpenstock while keeping side shtychkom ago. The steep descent of a person moving to a slope, knock socks stairs, sticking alpenstock before him, as on the rise (Fig. 44).
By uncool, nelavinoopasnym slopes are sliding down the steps, holding alpenstock ready. You can slide a few spread legs, how to ski, leaning back on alpenstock ("gliding"). In this case you should choose non-hazardous areas, without cracks and sticking out of the snow stones.
The next set of obstacles – water (streams and rivers), which are found on the plains and in the mountains. By its nature, plain and mountain rivers are very different. Lowland rivers flow velocity is low. The banks are often swamped, depth and width of the rivers are significant. Alpine rivers have much higher flow rate, but less depth. They have flat, rocky shore.
River – dangerous obstacles to overcome self. If possible, it is better to look for a bridge, put the ferry. Overcome the river ford, direct crossing is desirable only in case of emergency or for training purposes. It should again remember the instructions – all trip participants must be able to swim.
But knowing how young tourists crossing should. Besides crossing as spectacular technical stages are included in the program of competitions on Tourism. There are many ways to cross. The choice depends on the nature of the river and the level of training of participants in the campaign. Group leader to determine the most convenient place to organize the crossing, conducting reconnaissance and then determine what method will be crossing.
Wade Passage – the most common way. Select a site to cross the river with the lowest depth and current velocity. The depth does not exceed 1.2 m, flow rate – 3 m / s. Mountain rivers are selected areas where the main river is divided into a number of narrow and shallow sleeves. If the water are the stones, it is necessary yamechat way below the stones of flow of the river. Although there is water foams seem faster, but due to turbulence in emerging pressure on lower legs and go easier (Fig. 45).
Do not attempt to cross the river by jumping from rock to rock. It's easy to slip on the wet rocks and fall into the water. The stones can be used only when it is possible to cross from one stone to another, without jumping around, relying on the pole. Pole placed above the line of motion with respect to the water flow.
When fording one to use for the self alpenstock, placing it above the river itself, and based on it (see Fig. 46). If this is difficult, you can move in groups of a few people lined up. In this case, the strongest party put upstream. It will have the main water pressure (Fig. 47).
In no case can not go barefoot wading river. Good chance to step on something sharp (driftwood, stones ribs) and lose your balance.
Available with guided rope handrail. In this case, the first two ropes funneling insured: major and minor (Fig. 48). Belayer main rope is above the river. In the event of a rolling river belayer downstream auxiliary rope pulls him to shore. After crossing the first party secures a rope on the shore, and all the crossing to the other side, buckling carbine Conducted rail (Fig. 49). To be safe, you can organize support members supporting rope "hook" in case you are unable to fall and movement.
If the water barrier is not too wide, you can try to put it through a log or a tumble down a tree growing on the bank across the river. After that first party, as in the wade, on the insurance proceeds (climbs) on the other side of the railing and fixes it (Figure 50).
The most difficult are the ways of organizing the crossing, used mainly in tourist events – crossing the rope, with rails and hinged crossing (Fig. 51). Guidance such crossings – a laborious process, and feasible only by well-trained groups.
At the organization of insurance and in life tourists use special nodes. On the correct use of them depends the safety of participants hike, so knotting – a necessary element of the ropes. Of the large number of sites proposed for use of the national methodological literature on mountain tourism and mountaineering, we can recommend a very few of which are sufficient to ensure safety.
1. Nodes to link all the ropes, "straight", "counter", "bramshkotovy", "weaving" (Fig. 52).
Nodes used to attach the rope to the pole, "noose", "Bastard Explorer node" ("eight"), "bayonet", "guide", "strive", "bowline", "carbine noose" (Fig. 53).
3. "Grasps" nodes, "grasping", "Austrian grasping", "Bachmann knot" (Fig. 54).
All connections ropes must end control units, except for the "counter" and "one and a half unit of the conductor."
In addition, "bayonet" node must have at least three full turns of "karabinovaya noose" – at least five full turns uniformly distributed around the support. These nodes must end output end of the rope that is at least 5 cm
Node should not be twisted strands.