The device in the Arctic refuge. Part 2

Construction of buildings needleEven before the dark to look for place to stay, noting the route sections that are suitable for construction, if necessary, on the trail you can go back to them.

If it was possible to detect the depth of snow puffing 1.5-2 meters, it is likely that there will be appropriate to dig, and not to build. In this case, using a knife, saws, blades, bowls and other available tools, you can build the simplest shelter — a snow trench or cave.

Snowy trench is dug in deep, sheltered from the wind the snow. Trench width determined by the size of the material, which will serve as a roof. If the material is too narrow, you can dig a trench in a trapezoidal shape, extending to the sides at the bottom and narrowing at the top. The depth of the trench should be about five feet. Having reached this depth, across the trench laid rafters — skis, poles, and on them — a piece of polyethylene or fabric edges are pressed pieces of ice, rocks, snow blocks. On top of the roof can fill 15 to 20 cm of snow, after moving closer to each other rafters. The roof can be built from large slabs of snow stacked on one part of the rafters. Inlet in trench suit in the end or the side that is more convenient. Input must be closed with a piece of cloth hanging loosely to the floor slab of snow, or at least shut up the backpack.

The most convenient place for the construction of the cave — snow puffing at the top of the slope where the snow will be dumped emitted downward by gravity, without the efforts of builders. You can not dig a cave at the base of a steep slope of snow avalanches — Asylum may be buried avalanche. The cave is being built at the rate of 50-60 cm in width by one person. You can dig twin cave that structurally more robust and that it will take less time. If the drifts to dig a tunnel, then blind it to expand to the end of the desired size, then the work will not be very productive, as it can only be carried out by one person. Considerable saving in time is achieved work of several people over the entire volume of the cave. In this case, first dug a snow cave or shelter, and then after work he laid the open part of the snow bricks. To select large blocks of snow, do the cuts along the contour, and vertical and horizontal cuts. Cave walls should be vertical, passing into the domed ceiling. From a flat ceiling for security purposes should be abandoned. Digging a cave and laid the snow blocks the front part of it, you need to score the snow all the cracks, make hole and vent. Snow can close the hole plate or a piece of polyethylene. In the absence of deep snow cover will have to build from the snow blocks. The easiest way to built individual shelters — for their construction does not require any special skills, and with the hacksaw, avalanche shovels, knives or dural sheet is able to create a haven of any person. For lack of another instrument snow blocks can be cut skis. The simplest is hiding in the form of low rectangle manhole in the end, built of snow bricks. For its construction to find a site with a thick flooring and prepare some seventy size 40x20x20 cm bricks for the walls and a dozen plates 50×40 cm overlap. That's enough building material for the construction of shelter size 180×80 cm If there is skiing, they can be used as an overlay. Does not cause any difficulties and construction of snow pit, construction of which begins with the excavation of a small (50×50 cm) holes. Of its edges cut snow slabs may be longer. If the harvesting units formed a deep, five feet above the trench, it's easy to cover the closely stacked plates. Over shallow trench arrange gable roof. For this, two snow boards mounted on opposite sides of the trench, tilt as long as they do not connect the top sides. Triangular arch is formed which preferred vraspor plates. For the construction of the shelter only four or five pairs of plates, set next to each other. Ends of the dugout close triangular block, a piece of cloth or polyethylene, which shovel snow. Input is arranged in the form of knee-dug in the snow tunnel. Build shelter to so that was to windward end, opposite the entrance. Snow bricks stacked tightly overlapping, and at the end of the work, all carefully slit clog with snow. In order to conserve heat, make a small hole, just to squeeze into a crawl, and then close it from inside a snow slab or more bricks. A candle can provide a satisfactory temperature in the shelter. Pass the night in a shelter can put on warm clothes, climbing into a sleeping bag and backpack pulled to his feet.

In the event that there is not a sleeping bag or extra warm clothing, shelter is best done by a small pyramid, where you can not just lie or sit, but stand up, stretch your legs and move around to keep warm. This pyramid can be folded out of snow bricks, laying out the walls to a height of 40 cm vertically, and above — slightly offset inward, to a height of about a meter could block the ceiling slabs measuring about 50 cm You can use a decorative ceiling tile, with the tab at the bottom of . The width of the projection should be equal to the distance between the top of the wall block that went down in the groove ledge rasklinil wall and gave great strength construction. Insulate if nothing, then he will have to take off his shoes, put your feet in a backpack and constantly move his fingers, flexion and extension of the ankle. But if there is a candle, then it must fire up and put in a pit dug in the floor. Pit should be put on poles, on a stick — put your feet and cover them at least the same backpack. This is a sure way to avoid frostbite feet even in the dead of winter. From time to time you need to get up and do the workout. In drifts and drifts can dig a snow shelter individual — hole. If the size of a snowdrift, the hole should be at least half a meter in diameter and up to three meters in length, with a raised blind end. Nora does not dig deep into the airflow, and along it, hoping to lift height so that the man was above the entry. Paul burrow lined with any insulating material. If the hole is too small, you should get inside her head, and her feet to warm polyethylene or cloth. In such cases, it is better to make a hole with a ledge that it could polusidet. Then most of the body will be warm, and blood flow directed to the legs, ease their warm. If the shoe is lost or frostbitten feet, to go to the opposite — feet into the hole. In this case, the body and the head should be to build a small shalashik polyethylene or fabric. Hide in a hole, dug deep into the snowbank, it is unsafe, because during a blizzard so thick snow can block the entrance, which beat his feet do not fail, and turn around in a cramped, narrow hole is nearly impossible. In holes dug along the drift, in an emergency, to go outside, it is easy to knock out a side wall. If the crust is so thin that it is not suitable for block shelters, and the snow is not deep enough for the construction of a cave or a trench, you can build a snow hut. To do this, the diameter of the circle outlined establish a framework of skis and ski poles. Socks ski rope and heel stuck in the snow. To make the frame of a regular shape ski socks tied around a round object. During strong wind frame for durability hold streamers tied to stakes driven into the ground. Mounted on a frame placed on the edge of the snow slab. For the first row select the most robust plates because they will bear the entire burden upstream rows. On completion, all the cracks daubed with snow. Capacity of the building — not more than three or four. However, the internal volume can be significantly increased if erect a tent over the pre-dug a round hole. Perhaps the most perfect retreat is the Eskimo snow hut igloo. She served for many centuries the only winter shelter inland Eskimos. However, to build such a house requires experience and practice. In the absence of the necessary skills building needle can take a very long time or does not get at all. The person with the relevant construction experience, is able to raise the needle and a half to two hours. First you need to find snow. If the snow is too tight, it is difficult to cut with a knife, if it is too loose, blocks may be scattered from falling needle. The best is to build igloo snow that lightly pressed his foot. Snow on the drifting ice, suitable for such construction can be in the lee of ridges. Snow depth at the future career should be at least 0.6-0.7 m Quarry better positioned on the leeward side of the building site, and if the needle is constructed on a slope, above the construction to finished blocks could simply roll down. If the snow is uniformly dense in the deep, narrow cut vertically facing bricks. If sufficient strength has only the upper part of the snow cover, the blocks are cut horizontally. With the help of a rope, the ends tied to a peg which outline the range in which the first row will be laid snow bricks. The diameter of the circle is determined by the number of participants of the campaign: one person — 2.4 m, two — 2,7 m, three — 3 m, four — 3,6 m Block sizes are dependent on the quality of the snow, but you must use the following guidelines : block length of 50-90 cm, width — 40-50 cm, thickness -10-20 see To build a 3×3 m area of the needle, it'll take 60 to 70 units. The most suitable tool for making blocks — a knife with a blade length of 20-25 cm needle robust design is achieved spherical shape, stacking blocks in a spiral and a trapezoidal shape. The most important factor in the construction of this shelter is stacking, as they are held by three load bearing angles: the two lower and one upper.

Blocks first-line set with a slight slope. Then make a cut on a diagonal from the upper edge of one of the blocks of the first row to the bottom edge of the circle. In the resulting groove laid the first block of the second tier, and so on, still laying in a spiral with increasing inclination for round about 5-8 °. In this case, the angle of inclination of the upper rows will be about 45 °, and the diameter of the hole at the top can be reduced to 50-60 cm It is important to note that the stable position of the block will have only three points of contact: the lower bound — the two corner points and one — with previous block at the top. Fit blocks is made on the wall, the side faces of adjacent blocks are cut so as to achieve good contact at three points. The block sets nastovoy surface inside and so that covered the top of the lower joints. When the construction is finished, inside lit candle, the light of which allows you to see the cracks. The cracks between the blocks fill the triangular pieces of snow and snow flakes. This snow acts as a binder, and the wall becomes stronger than the original snow blocks. Traditionally one of the needle is in a manhole below floor level. However, we can not say that this design adds significantly heat the cabin. Therefore, it is possible to make a hole at floor level. To remove the products of respiration in the dome punch vent diameter of 10-15 cm and the needle is possible to construct a simplified scheme, making it, for example, a ring, not a spiral. In contrast to the spiral, the construction of the first row of circular needle snow bricks is not cut on the diagonal. Instead, the last brick in a row make the unusual — centimeters to thirty or forty above the rest. This non-standard bricks, bending and pulling slightly inward, apply the first block of the second series, to, in turn, another and so on. Moreover, since the blocks are in a stable position, they should be supported. Units gain stability by wedging the entire series of the last brick. Pushing inward and tilting at 30-40 ° snow bricks, rings of gradually tapered to form the correct hemisphere. The tilt units can be achieved when the entire series is over. For this very carefully saw through the joints of blocks by moving them over, inside the needle. If you can not cut off the dome of the needle can be put on the edge of the wall poles, skis, lay a piece of polyethylene or tissue, and the top covered with snow. In cases when it is impossible to procure a large number of blocks, and the snow is deep enough, you can build a needle over a half to two-meter pit. Internal volume of the shelter can be increased, undermining the walls with holes so that the slope was equal to the angle of inclination of the walls needle. Laminates, flooring for construction neslezhavshegosya needle cut blinoobraznye blocks thickness not exceeding 10 cm These blocks are laid down flat, so that the top row of each project into the circle on the lower third of the deep. Tapering gradually form rings of the dome. The diameter of a needle should not exceed 1.5-2 m, otherwise the dome could collapse. Capacity of the needle will be more, if undermining the walls to the side and remove from the floor 30 to 50 cm of snow. If you allow the fuel supply, the temperature was raised to the needle until the inner surface of the dome will not be wet. After that, the fire was quenched, and soon the walls are covered by a shiny ice film, and a cabin becomes extraordinary strength. In anticipation of the storm wind is better to build a stronger needle — double-tiered snow blocks on the windward side, which for the greater strength can be poured with water. In snow shelters must be carefully aligned floor to avoid bumps and pits. Hard-packed snow on the floor like a fan (in the minds wider, and in the legs already) laid down the ski bindings. Across the top of them couches — insulating mats, under the chest and waist. The inhabitants of the snow shelter, before entering the shelter, must shake off the snow and ice. If they are dressed warmly enough, it is better to remove outer clothing and put themselves under or on top of sleeping bags. In an emergency situation, and more appropriate to make available sleeping bags. In the middle of the packed and frozen sick people, and at the edges — the strongest and most warmly dressed. Shoes for the night is better to remove it and put the legs under the blanket. He who sleeps next to the exit, the last bear, closes the inlet and leg wraps comrades. If people in a snow shelter, no sleeping bags, no spare warm clothing, they should be positioned so that the contact area was greatest. Most sit frozen in the center, sitting at his feet. If there are unnecessary things that have insulating properties, they should be put under. Over dry clothes to wear or you can even throw a wet, pre-clearing it of snow and ice. A wet heat ceases only cotton, wool and synthetics retain their insulating properties. However, in the wind, any wet clothing reinforces hypothermia. Waiting for help before Take cover, you need to build an identification mark to be able to see rescuers — add a bright round object on top, set the pole with in-knitted cloth … You can apply a light signal with candle lit inside a snow shelter. The light seeping through the snow, especially in the joints of blocks makes the needle walls glow brightly in the dark. Illuminated buildings visible from inside the snow much more than just a lit candle on the street. If the inside of the needle lit candles at the same time 4.3, the visibility of the light signal in clear weather from the air increases to several kilometers.

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