No matter how warm or had clothes, maintain the required temperature of the body, it can only strictly limited time. Under negative temperatures eventually heat balance was not in favor of human rights and begin cooling the body. Therefore, the device seekers in which to shelter from the cold and wind – one of the main conditions for survival in the high latitudes. In the Russian polar expeditions are currently used tent KAPSh (Frame tent Shaposhnikov). In form, they resemble Chukchi yaranga or Kazakh yurt. A tent frame is assembled from aluminum alloy tubes. Its three-layer wall: upper black tarpaulin, durable and almost waterproof medium – flannelette, internal – of white linen, reflecting some of the heat inside the tent. Paul KAPShand rubberized percale. Opposite the entrance door hung with a felt, a small round window from double Plexiglas. The tent is heated by coal and firewood in the iron stove or gas. In a tent (the weight of about 80 kg) can accommodate from three to six. It is solid, it can be said stationary design.
Expedition "Komsomolskaya Pravda" used the tent in which the carcass is partly replaced by skis. This is how the tent itself and the process of installation Dmitry Shparo. "First choose a level place with a strong infusion. The sharp end of the two ski poles are put loops of rope measuring 2.25 meters in length. One stick stuck in the snow, marking center of the future home, another circle is drawn in the snow. Saw it on a one-handed cut crust, then paddle digs groove depth of 15 centimeters. At that time, someone is going to frame the tent ceiling – decahedral pyramid: at the base of 10 units with special titanium lugs and lateral edges -10 aluminum beams. Then one of us, usually Shishkarev, becomes the center of a circle, holding a pyramid over his head, and 3-4 inserted ski socks in ears, fixing heels "Beskids" in the groove. Ten skis become resilient and reliable backbone of the future house.
Two people throw the carcass kapron cloth – the walls and ceiling. Special lapel cloth – we call it a collar – fits into the groove and firmly clamped snow bricks. Our house is like a hemisphere, but the closest to a paraboloid. He was not afraid of the wind …
On snow floor spreads plastic film, then seven foam pads that communicate with each other. Inflated "bibs", our life jackets, also links into a single mattress and the bed is ready. " This tent was designed for seven people, weighed 4.2 kg, frame – 3 kg, floor area – 15 square meters. m, height – 1.6 m
In autonomous polar travel using modern lightweight tent in the form of a hangar, an umbrella hemisphere tense frame, which is very good "hold" the snow and wind, they are easy to use and provide the necessary comfort.
Among the tents provided by the domestic market, there are both single-layer and double layer. The advantages of single-wall tents are obvious – it is compact and light. However, most of these tents made of waterproof synthetic fabric, which means that the main problem is still the same abundant condensation accumulates on the inner side of the fabric and fall as a rain on the inhabitants of the tent. For polar travel is a very big disadvantage. Of course, there are single-walled tent, made of non-membrane fabrics, such as Gore-Tex or Sympatex, the merits of which were described above. But the cost of such tents, quite frankly, is not conducive to excessive demand. On the other hand, if the tent is made of a single layer "nedyshaschih" material, then it must be a system of ventilation in the form of mesh openings, which does not add a tent, no heat, no comfort.
The most widely-layer tents, of which it is possible to find models with optimal combination of price and quality. In a two-layer tent, the main impact of the vicissitudes of the weather falls on the tent and the bottom, so the materials from which they are made must meet requirements such as strength, impermeability, ease. Awning also must endure the heavy sun. All seams in a good tent should be glued with a special tape to prevent leaks. In order to improve the strength of fabrics, a special weaving RipStop. Polyurethane coating (on the products indicated PU) Provides flexibility and waterproof fabrics in a wide range of temperatures. Water-repellent coating are enhanced WR (Water Resistance). Polyester fibers that are part of some tissues, almost no stretch under the influence of moisture and less destroyed by ultraviolet (UV) Radiation fabrics in the labeling of which include the above reduction, characterized by high durability, strength, high abrasion resistance, are not subject to wet and rotting. To manufacture the bottom of tents and awnings are used Nylon Taffeta, Poly Taffeta, Poliester, Nylon Oxford, withstand at least 3000 mm water column. Tent in some models is on the bottom edge of the "skirt", which you can squeeze rocks or snow bricks, improving water quality and wind-proof tent. Cut the tent must be such that it protects the inputs into the tent from the rain and snow, and formed quite spacious lobbies, which can add up things or bad weather cook food.
For making use of the inner tent "breathing" Nylon, polyamide, nylon. The main thing in these tissues – the ability to good air exchange. All the entrances and ventilation openings should be duplicated in a mosquito net. Sometimes the inner tent is attached to the arcs on hooks, and on top of the arc snaps awning. However, other more practical option when the inner tent is attached directly to an awning and frame arc is passed in special pockets on top of the tent. This design gives the tent additional rigidity and wind resistance, and in addition, allows you to quickly set up a tent in bad weather.
The skeleton of the tent – its skeleton – should be sufficiently resilient to withstand large deformations without vertical loads, which is especially important in high latitudes, where strong winds are not uncommon. It is not suitable for polar travel tent with fiberglass frame – it does not frost resistant and not too strong. Used by some domestic manufacturers brand duralumin D16T susceptible strains. The best indicator to date has alloy EAST0N. In some models, for easy assembly frame elements connected to an elastic cord.
With regard to form, the most widely used domed tent. Indeed, they differ enviable wind stability, simplicity and speed in the assembly and installation, pretty impressive internal volume and low weight. In calm weather, these tents can be placed without delays. Frame of two or four arcs crossed the tent provides maximum stability even in strong winds. Tent hangar type having tunneleobraznuyu form, create a more comfortable beds, but they are not sustainable without braces and lacks the ability to resist the wind, which, of course, reduces the possibility of their use in a polar journey.
Tent that can adequately transfer all the burdens of extreme hike, make certain you have the producers –VauDe, Tatonka, Bask, Lafuma.
At high latitudes, tents set along the direction of the prevailing winds in such a way that the entrance was on the lee side. Prevailing wind direction amply illustrates the wind forms a snow-terrain – drifts and drifts.
On pack ice in arranging a large camp and warehouses with emergency supply of food stalls set in a circle, so that if progress was not a crack at the same time under all the tents. If possible, the products should be stored in a separate tent from the dwelling place – it will protect people in the event visit the polar bear.
Good protection for the tent will be coated with snow blocks. In the polar regions the weather tends to be extremely unstable. Cloudless sky and bright sun can quickly give way to a sharp sudden decrease in temperature, blizzards, gale force winds that can tear apart a tent. Therefore, you should never neglect the construction of a snow wall around the tent. Not only does it protect against threatening wind gusts, but also warm a home.
For wind wall cut snow blocks no more than 60x40x30 cm, which are placed close to the tent, and to each other so that the broad side shaped wall thickness. The construction of the wall begins to wind verge tents on either side of her. Before laying the next row of the upper side of the bottom row is aligned. Constructing a wall of 20-30 cm above the bends rays. Entrance vestibule might want to protect in the form of one or two half-arches. If the wind is so strong that you can not put up a tent, first erect a snow wall (at least half of the circumference of the tent), and then put the cover under her tent.
Snow not only has good wind and thermal protection qualities, but also easy to process, making it an excellent building material. It can be cut, cut. Snow blocks easily give the required form, fit for the right size, stacked on top of each other, they are due to sticky snow, do not slip and within 5-10 minutes form a monolith. Therefore, in the absence of the tent you can always build a shelter out of snow or snow.