The reaction is followed. This is an important accessory a young animal, providing him the best safety in the early, very important period of life. During the move, a family group from one place to another, when the most likely possibility of losing a baby (especially in many families), the reaction sequence provides a solid contact with the baby's mother, makes him relentlessly follow.
In the classical works on. Example precocial birds has been shown that the reaction sequence is the result of recording chick stimulus object in a short sensitive period in the very early stages of ontogeny. K. Lorenz, stressing the special significance of this period, called it critical. Subsequently, however, it has been shown that this period is not as strict in time and correct to call it sensible. AN Promptov reactions observed following the mother partridge chicks shortly after hatching, but this reaction does not occur if the chick sits next to his mother at a later date. It was also found that the imprinting stimulus-object occurs in precocial birds (chickens and ducks) in the period between the twelfth and the sixteenth hour after hatching.
Many mammals are also able to follow mother shortly after birth. Thus, domestic ungulates in a few hours can go for any moving object . Manifestation of the reaction sequence in mammals depends on the ability to move and baby distinguish stimulus-object. In animals, logovnikov reaction sequence is shown at the time of departure from the family den. By this time, the mother and cubs existing ones through a complex set of thermal, tactile, olfactory, auditory, visual, and food stimuli, which at the time of formation of the reaction sequence can act as powerful stimulants which substantially facilitate the manifestation of this reaction. Studies show that in the absence of many of these support stimulant reaction sequence shown and steadfastly observed during family time.
The possibility of the response repetition depends, obviously, on the development of locomotor skills, ie start the sensitive period of the reaction is determined by the age of the developing organism.  Found that imprinting is highly dependent on the efforts made to overcome the obstacles in the period following a moving subject. In this context, the ability to start imprinting by the level of readiness for the implementation of certain animal activities. It was at the point of initial contact with any obstacles, in some way hamper the desire inexperienced animal to the stimulus-object, it is excited nervous system. LV Krushinsky pointed out that "the increased excitability of the nervous system is extremely favorable backdrop for the most easily produced by a number of individually acquired skills and most clearly separate acts of animal behavior" [69, p. 241].
Thus, the seal of the reaction sequence is accompanied by a critical situation where progress toward receding stimulus-object is difficult, causing excitement cubs.
At an early age every moving object, even potentially dangerous, does not cause bears avoidance response (this is also observed in other animals). Formation of the main reactions of defensive behavior to end their five-month age. Prior to that, the possibility of survival of young determined mother, exhibiting maternal instinct, and contact with her cubs in the reaction sequence.
Certainly bear protecting her cubs from the adverse effects of the environment and on, until the collapse of the family (up to age cubs 1.5, and in some regions – 2.5 years). However, over the age of 5 months. Bears are already able to avoid the risk of their own, hiding in the forest or climbing a tree.
At various times, we have seen a manifestation of the reaction sequence in the experimental cubs had constant possibility of contact with the natural environment during the different duration of excursions.
The three were taken us bear from its den March 30, on the eve of the family. Troubled man-bear had left the den March 29. Bears spent the night alone in the den, and then were transferred to a backpack in the tent and remained there for 4 hours (had to be brought from the nearest village milk). In the absence of human bears came out of the tent, ripping the laces, and were close to it, at a distance of less than 1 m They were visibly nervous, and trembled at cautious approach of human beings trying to hide in the tent. When the man came into the tent and lay down, bears climbed in and settled there. For W-15 are completely imaginary relaxed. The longest time to be concerned is the smallest bear.
During the milk (in 3 and from tents) bears located outside the tent at a distance of not more than 0.5-1 m When the man left the tent at 6-8 and to gather wood for the fire, all at the same time bears quickly followed him and come close. The interested person has passed this phenomenon, slowly, 20 m Cubs moved behind him, with admirable tenacity to overcome obstacles encountered – deep hole in the snow, fallen trees, brushwood. After stopping, they began to move, as soon as the distance between them and the person reaches 2-2.5 m, and stayed only came up to him.
Behavior bears showed that in the initial period following the stimulus-object (person) they are very excited and tired, and the subsequent deep their sleep was a reaction to inhibition of the central nervous system.
The next day after feeding bears was made to walk them through the snowy forest at a distance of 600 m with an average speed of about 0.5 m / s. Excitation pups increased sharply when the distance between a person and they begin to exceed 4 m, and significantly reduced if cubs could move next to a man. After 4 h, there was another walk (old route). This time the Bears more successfully overcome obstacles encountered nm, fallen trees, thick brush, puddles (pass them by) deep hole in the snow. Thus, two sessions of movement area was enough for them to a certain extent, have learned to move more efficiently. External excitation of significantly decreased.
Bear-mother, which leads cubs often publishes original sound. A similar signal is fed to us and during walks and guided guinea cubs. At his first outing served at 1 with a series of 2-4 and 6 signals in a row. 2 hours after the first walk by the tent signal was fed at 2 m from the Cubs play the series of 5 repetitions. Play behavior immediately changed orientation reaction, and after repeating the signal (series of 3 signals) bears come close to the man.
The experiment was to maintain a strong bond between man and bear cubs. Assuming that the reaction sequence may be one of the foundations of such ties, bears after taking them out of their dens and carrying with them the first tour for some time remained in the tent with the man. This was done in order to secure the possibility of future contact by children acquaintance with the smell of the experimenter, his appearance, clothing and equipment. This takes into account the fact that after imprinting stimuli (olfactory, visual, etc.) may produce various links that provide the best contact with the stimulus pups-object (Slonim, 1976).
To confirm the role of the phenomenon of imprinting in the formation of the reaction sequence in the cubs, we conducted a series of experiments.
The cubs were taken out of the area of the den to the Central Reserve Tsentralnolesnogo estate in backpacks (each separately) pomesheny first house on the veranda, and then a roomy cage, located near the forest. They conducted daily walks in natural lands, and then multi-day tours. During the first 20 days they were fed one technician, and later, when they were already in the cell – the other if the first was missing. Experimenter who are dealt cubs crust only on a case by case basis. When such people to participate in feeding their cubs communication through food reinforcement should be the most durable on the first lab assistant, less strong in the second and rather weak with the experimenter.
In the course of two field seasons, when the experiment was conducted, the reaction sequence was different from the cubs. In the first months (April-May) on walks they tried to keep as close as possible to the experimenter. Even the smallest of movement immediately aroused bears orientation reaction, and they tried to keep up with more than 4.6 ka and (in all likelihood, it is the distance and distance appear in the first 2 months. After the family of the den). With the rapid movement of the baby excited and tried to keep up and often get in the way. In the far distance route does not stand so strictly. At the end of May and in June, bears could move away from the experimenter on 40-50 meters especially in the feeding ground, and lie to move from one to the other habitats followed him at a distance of 15-30 m Some sometimes distracted, stopped, for example about the moss tussocks with ants, but to find that left alone, loudly snorting (signal communication bears in the family) and rapidly overhauled bygone group. Only in the event of a hazard (noise fallen tree, shouting strange bird, a man's voice, barking dogs, etc.), or in fast motion Bears tried to keep a short distance (4-S m).
During the first field season in all conditions toddlers constantly followed by the experimenter and self-it was never left.
The role of the phenomenon of imprinting in the formation of the reaction sequence was confirmed as follows. In May and beginning of June during a walk in the woods, when the Bears went to the location of the cells far enough to the group (the experimenter with cubs) connects the lab, feed the bears in the cells, and the experimenter left unnoticed. In all cases, the Bears went from the laboratory assistant, once detected the absence of the experimenter (Table 17). They there was a connection with a lab assistant through food, and with the experimenter – through the reaction sequence, formed in the early days of contact Hx. It must be assumed that the initial contacts cubs to a specific person, it had the smell of the response to the following crucial and could form a seal of certain stimuli signals.
Two tests should be made separately. During the first excursion into the forest in July (first experience) cubs passed into the care of a lab assistant. In the new, unfamiliar surroundings, they successfully followed the familiar to them the man who imitated the call sign fairly generally. In August and September, these attempts have not been successful, and the cubs followed only by the experimenter. When they tried to leave the familiar lab assistant, they began to worry about running around in the woods and no matter what it did not respond to the signals. From the place where they lost the experimenter, not left, and could easily find many hours later, and even other day, as soon as the experimenter began to file identifier.
In November, during device cubs den (second experiment) the experimenter had to absent himself from them for 5 hours until a full month of any contact with the cubs to other people were not. The emergence of the new man (the first laboratory assistant) near the den, and no experimenter has caused great excitement cubs: they roared, trying to get into the tent. Their motor activity, insignificant in this period, has increased dramatically. During the first days after the return of the experimenter bears were still strongly excited and pursue after him, and the night so close to the tent, which was good to hear the faint breath (of course, and they are well heard his breathing). Cubs excitement died down only on the second day, after a short walk in the vicinity of the den.
We repeatedly observed the reaction of fear among the cubs at their meeting with the person, domestic cow elk or with their siblings. Funk was also observed in the case if the experimenter appeared in another, unfamiliar to them clothes.
Distrust them not immediately disappear, even after they sniffed it, and any sudden movement of man caused them concern. According to our observations, the cubs when they fall behind, often finds herself a mother, and not vice versa. In those cases, if they lose track of the mother, they generally have no other option (other than accidental) to get close to her if she did not come to them myself.
Bears lose at any age (from 3 months. 1 year 8 months) for a long time to stay put. They made no attempt to look for the experimenter. Even two days they were not removed from the place where they were left by more than 500-700 meters and easily find, in response to the call sign of the experimenter, who clearly distinguished between "among other forest sounds, bears the age of 7 months. able to accurately determine the location of Mr., giving sound.
After wintering bears in the den as they have prepared their connection with the experimenter through the reaction sequence is much weaker, but again recovered after two sessions contact. The first appearance of the experimenter in the den with the cubs caused a sharp defensive reaction – they climbed the highest el "as soon as he heard it coming (by this time they were getting out of their dens in the afternoon). The trees they sat very still, and a bear did not be found. Experimenter calmly walked along the paths in front of the cubs for 20 minutes and gave the call sign of short series. " Any reaction from the cubs at the experimenter did not appear. A day later the experimenter again in the same place, walked in front of the beast, climb a tree, and sound an alarm in series of 5-7 reps. After some time on the top of one of the huge fir trees bear little snort, and after 5 minutes slowly, with pauses and tears down a tree just 15 minutes after the session was rocking movement of the experimenter and the alarm went off. He cautiously approached the man who sniffed his (the experimenter was wearing the same clothes as in the fall), and lay down in the snow. It was a female. Only after this, the next tree down another bear, a male, cautiously approached the experimenter, who remained motionless, sniffed it, and calmly walked away.
Soon Bears started the game and seemed to have stopped paying attention to the presence of a familiar person, who in the past when a substitution for them in the forest mother. After 2 hours, staying with ["medzezhataik (direct contact is made) the experimenter left, Mr. Bears remained in their dens. Only at noon the next day they trail paved man came and aviary I were put in a cage. Den was from the cage at 300 m
In the cage bears not fed, and two days later the experimenter left with them for 15 km in the area of the vast moor, where the band was before the first grass vegetation. By this time the cubs turned to 54-15 months. Reaction sequence was expressed them well, but during the next tour (from May 20 to June 20), they are very afraid of the fresh trail of a male bear, ran away into the forest and no longer respond to the call sign. In the forest, climb a tree with a long time they did not go down. Such cases are repeated several times. Sometimes the bears could be detected with difficulty in only a few hours after they ran away from the experimenter. In this case, it seems, they were clearly inhibited state to an almost did not respond to an acquaintance. Once they could not drive away from the trees with a sound signal for a whole hour. Usually, fearing the smell of fresh trail of a male bear, cubs together and ran the same direction, but once ran around. In this case, they found it easier to find, since they had calmed down, began to speak aa sound.
In mid June, the fresh smell of a male bear did not cause their avoidance and fear usually expressed only in the alarm snorts and that they tried to keep close to the experimenter.
In July and August of the second field season with the Cubs (18-20 months) to their coincidence twice left in the forest to the first lab assistant, but after a few hours, they left her, and if she tried to chase them, and ran away into the woods . To find them, she could not. The next day, and in the second after 49 h experimenter, walking through the woods and giving call sign, easily found near the cubs the same place where they had lost a lab. Apparently, they are able to distinguish between a familiar sound at a very great distance.
On the third season of bears (age 2 years 3 months) came to the aviary April 12 (they wintered on the territory). Initially expressed avoidance was replaced in the female into neutral, and then the food. Bear began to appear on the outskirts of the village, to the bins, and once, frightened dogs ran in the village. After that she was put in a cage and let out only on day trips. While walking she followed the experimenter, but lost him in the woods, much excited, tried to find the tracks and, if it is -. E succeeded, and came to his aviary cage.
The male was observed a pronounced avoidance of open spaces, the man and his home. During the months he lived near the village and ate natural food, sleep came to his cell, which was next to the female's cage, but early in the morning once again into the woods. We believe that the settlement of the reserve attracts only male presence in the cage of his sister, with whom he lived together for over 2 years. During our stay near the male inhabitants of the village he was never seen again. During several trips to the male experimenter reluctantly followed him, and in the forest to unexpectedly run away and call signs to not react. If it could find on the trail, then after some time, he again escaped and returned late in the aviary, suited to the female and sniffs at her through the bars, sometimes they tried to play through the bars, and then the male left in his cage to sleep. The door to his cell was always open. Together they were not allowed to walk for fear that the female can make the male in the village (the male character was unstable, and it could get any unpleasant).
Walking with each of the cubs alone prevent them from incident to people and pets. The fact that the male was observed avoidance of man and his home, and he came only in the aviary, and its connection with the experimenter was weak. The female, on the contrary, was so closely connected with it, that it could be manipulated to during walking. At the next multi-day walk in the woods on May 12 male was frightened by the presence of another bear that night, a voice announced his privileges on the aft portion. By morning, the male guinea left. For two days it was partly protropit and discover 19 kilometers from the clearing where his frightened bear. We have calculated that. two days he was at least 56 km on land, the familiar to him from previous trips.
In the wild lands of the male lived until June 9, and then went to the outskirts of a small village, where he drove the forester. However, he soon went out again to the same village, was attacked livestock, killed a sheep, ran up to him pretty close, and fled into the woods. We decided to try to get in contact with a bear and get him in the cage. Found him oo tracks, he was coming to the experimenter, in spite of the feed they sound. The slow, quiet movement with filing callsign, putting some on the road moving baits (pieces of bread soaked in sweetened condensed milk), contributed to the bear began to walk for the experimenter to the track: "to, finally, came up to him. Sniffing it, he calmed down and obediently followed the man, fed from time to time with bread and sugar. Already at 6 km from the ill-fated village beast I shiver, despite the efforts of the experimenter, again fled into the forest. They managed to find the tracks at a distance of 1.5 km from the place of escape. The bear was sitting at the very top of a huge aspen, which went just over 2.5 hours to fertilize him again, he went to the man. Soon, on the way back was a fresh bear track, and the male fled as far as to find it is no longer possible, and in the evening he went out again to the second one derezle, from which he was taken away in the morning, and there he was as a possible risk to people ubdon predator.
Based on the data of our observations, we can assume that the formation of the reaction sequence in the young occurs at 2.5 months. in the period when the bear family from the den. This reaction appears suddenly, without prior learning and firmly traced at Cubs for 1.5, and in some cases up to 2.5 years.
In the formation of the reaction sequence is important phenomenon of imprinting stimulus object. The change habitual shaded den camera at a bright background with snow-covered ground dens (bears away from their dens during the day), dark (contrast), moving against this background that the stimulus-object, and obstacles in the way of their cubs moving towards it, possible extraneous sounds, Finally, the dark tree trunks stand out against a light background of snow, and the other may make a strong irritant, contributes to the manifestation of the phenomenon of imprinting.
During the formation of the reaction sequence can be quickly runningaway conditioned reflex to up sound stimulus-object. In this case, the reinforcement may be a reflex reaction itself is followed. If the Bears lose their mother (stimulus-object), they linger near the place where it was lost, and when you move to keep coming back here, as if guided by him.
Up to five months of age in the cubs can be switched (readdressing) reactions follow a different stimulus-object. At older ages, it does not. As the pups along with a visual recording of stimulus-object becomes important scent signals. The ability to search for stimulus-object on the trail, guided by the sense of smell, can significantly alter the distance following the cubs the mother, but the transitions from one to the other habitats cubs try to keep it out of sight.
At the age of about 1.5 years young relationship with his mother is much weaker, including through the reaction sequence. The reason for this is the appearance of a pronounced avoidance bear cubs fresh smell of a male (at the time the bears begin gon). This reaction occurs relatively short period of time from the end of May to early June, and significantly weakened by the end of the first decade of June. It should be borne in mind that the avoidance of "foreign" bears young animals including cubs over the age of 7 months., There permanently, but it is most evident in time. In our opinion, severance of family ties of bears in the "mother – calf" is precisely because of the manifestation of panic reaction of fear of male-producers in the period preceding the Gon. At this time the Bears can run away from the mother so far away and sit in a secluded place for so long that they lose each other. Moreover, when the bears will run away from the mother, any object approaching them, including herself, can cause them gain this reaction, as in this case it will act as an additional stimulus.
Keep in mind that his mother bears can detect the spacecraft distance of 40-50 meters, and calmly walking through the forest animals and humans hear the 200 and even 300 m Once the cubs run away from his mother, fearful smell bear male, closer to their It may or when it will be close to the cubs and they will learn it "in person", or when they get on the trail of her mother and went out and brought the smell.
Every sound that accompanies the movement of large animals, is regarded as a possible danger cubs. Therefore, those who avoidance during initiation is expressed most strongly, and can escape from approaching the mother if she does not file callsign sound. From experience we know that the call sign of the most frequently feeds bear, leading fingerlings. We have never heard of such a signal was applied to the female, who walks with Lonchakov. It is possible that the intensity of the signal-bear has some connection with her lactation, and significantly reduced after this period.
At the age of 2.5 years can bear to leave the stimulus-object with no apparent reason. Convergence cubs with their mother could have at least a month after breaking family ties. The main factor that contributes to this process, is the smell of the mother.
Reaction sequence, shown at the Cubs during the exit from the family den, playing first major mechanism for communication with the young mother. For its part, bear, showing the maternal instinct, helps to maintain a distance of journey (moving slowly), which significantly saves power and reduces their pups excitement. However, in the first days after the families of the den, and usually up to seven months of age, when the forming basis of defensive behavior, the reaction sequence acquires additional elements of family relationships – this focus on up sound mother issued her alarm sounds, behavior bears while driving – calm or a fast pace, running, the ability to find the mother of the smell of her tracks.
Thus, the reaction sequence in the brown bear to be seen as a form of behavior that provides communication with the baby's mother, not only through eye contact, but also through sound, olfactory signals, and how the ability to recognize a state of excitement at the distance of the mother (the external behavior, make sounds) . In different situations, depending on the age of the cubs reaction sequence is shown in different ways. The criterion for these differences may be considered following distance. Up to six months of age, regardless of the situation following distance is the shorter, the more bears will be excited at the time of movement of the family. In this case there is the shortest distance route. At older ages, when the reaction is carried out through the following additional excitement analyzers (olfactory and auditory), in critical situations (in danger), it can be inhibited by defensive avoidance (climbing trees) and occurs only after some excitement weakens.