Under Soviet rule mining seals declined sharply and amounted to: in 1923 on Bering Island 351 units, on the island of Copper – 691 units, a total of 1042 pieces. In 1924, respectively 235, 622 and 857 pc. In 1925 . -435, 492 and 927 pc. in 1926, -361, 531 and 892 units. and in 1927, -342, 569 and 911 units.
In order to preserve and increase the stock of producers in the islands are only scoring singles.
Fishing seals on the Commander Islands in 1928-1940 gg.
Island farming was organized with the Soviet government and the other islands of the Far East, in particular Shantar where produce sable fish, bears and other animals.
In the Far East were caught relatively large amount of valuable fur-bearing animals such as squirrel, ermine, sable, weasel, fox, as shown by the blanks in 1940-1941.
In addition to these major areas of the fur trade of the USSR, the hunting of fur-bearing animals was carried out in the other republics, territories, regions of the country, where, of course, her role was much less than in the northern regions of the USSR.
Take, for example, Kazakhstan. Fur trade in the country was a subsidiary occupation, but for certain types of furs, he was crucial in the blanks fur raw materials in the USSR. So, in 1927, Kazakhstan produced over 5 million gophers, sandstone, fur which had good demand in the domestic market and abroad. The share of furs produced in Kazakhstan amounted in total blanks fur raw materials in the USSR (by value) in the 192,425 g – 8% and was 192 526 – 11.9%. In those years in Kazakhstan was going squirrel skins-sandstone of 60% and higher, polecat white – from 36 to 45%, Fox-20 to 22%, ermine – 7 to 9%, the hare – from 8% of all blanks do9 skins these species in the USSR.
Extraction of certain fur-bearing animals in the Kazakh SSR in 1924-1927.
In terms of value extracted furs were: 192,425 in city-2, 8 million rubles., At 192,526 g – 4.8 mln., To 192,627, the -4.5 mln.
The sharp decline in production was due to the ban fox hunting these animals in Dzhetysuyskoy and Syrdarya province, and also in Adaevskom Kustanai and districts. In the same period, were not allowed to hunt in Kazakhstan river beavers, otters, muskrats, Korsakov, marten, mink and sable. In the northern part of the republic was established hunting season from November 1-February 15, in the south – from November 1 to February 1. In Kazakhstan, 192526, it was also produced (in pcs.): 7253 column and 304 marten.
The rest of the southern republic USSR played a very small role in the fur trade. So, in 192,526, in Turkmenistan were scored 9262 foxes and 46,682 other animals, in Kyrgyzstan – 787 birds, 123 marten, fox 5321, 1008 trochee, 36,714 groundhogs and marmots and 46,005 other animals, and in the Caucasus, 12,877 hares, martens 2621, 7560 and 5500 foxes other beasts in Uzbekistan-2989 birds, 161 marten, 21,861 foxes, ferrets 1580, 24,948 groundhogs and marmots, ground squirrels, 2769 sandstones and 59,597 different animals and in the Crimea – 9279 birds, 35 martens, 360 foxes, polecats and 33 29 946 other animals.
In other regions of the USSR hunting for fur animals was slightly more important than in the southern republics, as the following table.
Extraction of fur-bearing animals in some parts of the Soviet Union in 1925-26, the
In the 30 years in the areas of commercial importance was hunting for moles, gophers, rats, water and barn and other small rodents. Thus, in the Leningrad region, which included the years of Karelia and the Murmansk region, from 2500 thousand skins of various animals, harvested in 1932, there were over 1800 thousand skins of moles. Catching moles involved in many area residents in their free time. Among the famous krotolovov had many children and adolescents. Moles extracted. Traps made of wire from the end of June. If the northern and north-eastern districts of the Leningrad region, one person per season to catch a few dozen moles, in the Novgorod area – 300 units, and in the Luga – 1 000. In 1932 in total was harvested 2,496,546 pelts following species (for ex.): Protein – 392 889, otter – 161, ermine-13 246, hare – 65 822, hare – 53 327, mole – 1829500, rats barn – 83 493, a water-rat 4870, martens – 583, Fox – 5727, Mink – 4747, polecat black – 32 167 other species – 10 014. Development of fishing rodents (gophers, moles, rats, etc.) was crucial for the national economy. On the one hand, rural economy countries benefit more from the destruction of these pests, the other – fur industry has plenty of raw material for processing in its fur.
Given the extensive damage caused to livestock fur animals under the tsars, relevant government organizations (Push-nogostorg, Soyuzpushnina, Zagotzhivsyre, Central Council of the All-Union Scientific Research Institute of hunting, etc.) began in 1925 with the aim to work to vosproizvodstva.zverey acclimatization reacclimatization and game mammals.
In October 1925, the island of Great Shantar were brought from the Island Copper 20 blue foxes, and in 1927 a further 11 of these animals from Bering Island. But this experience ended badly. In 1930 on the island of Grand Shantar could only b foxes, the rest or moved across the ice to the mainland or become a victim of the stronger predators, and died from the disease. In 1927, 13 foxes were introduced to the island in the Sea of Okhotsk Zavyalov, in 1928, 16 units. these animals – on the island Karaga in the Bering Sea in 1929, 96 pcs. – On the island of Kildin in the Barents Sea, 14 pcs. – On an island in the White Sea Anzer and 43 pc. – Furugelm Island in the Japan Sea, which in 1930 was delivered 7 more items. Results Release of 220 foxes were unsatisfactory; foxes are not accustomed to new places for the same reasons that have emerged in Grand Shantar, or in connection with the use of islands (Kildin, Anzère) for other purposes. The same fate befell the 187 white foxes released in 1926 on the island Kolguyev in the Barents Sea.
Very favorable results were achieved in acclimatization muskrat, first imported to the USSR from Finland in 1927 of 125 sh. Only from 1927 to 1932, was brought to the USSR from abroad 2532 muskrats, released Karaga and the Solovetsky Islands, as well as in a number of places taiga of the European part of the USSR, Western Siberia and Yakutia. In subsequent years, the various regions of the USSR reservoirs have produced their acclimatized muskrats. Until 1959, it was settled in different regions of the USSR about 170 thousand muskrats, including up to 1940 – 40.3 thousand. In individual years muskrats issue was made in the following number (for ex.): In 1928 – 144, in 1929, -337, -182 in 1930, in 1931 – 286, in 1932 – 2741 , in 1933. – 1446, in 1934 – 853, in 1935. – 5967, in 1936 -5122, in 1937 -4523, in 1938 – 7122, in 1939 – 10 650 and in 1940 -3424.
Harvest these animals was first started in 1935, when it was harvested 3820 muskrat pelts. Soon, the first batch of Soviet muskrat pelts was implemented at the Leningrad fur auction for export. In 1940, the production of these animals in the USSR reached 542 thousand units., And in 1956 – about 6 million units.
In 1927 the re-acclimatization sable population which in the USSR until the October Revolution has decreased dramatically. Thanks reacclimatization sable, many years of prohibition of hunting for them, and the subsequent fishing licenses only limited face sable for each hunter, the number of these valuable animals increased significantly.
From 1925 to 1940, except for muskrats, sables and foxes, were resettled in many parts of the Soviet Union, about 30 thousand of different animals, including muskrats, river otters, nutria, foxes, Korsakov, raccoons and raccoon dogs, martens Mountain (stone), skunks, minks American, columns, white ferrets, sea otters, marmots, ground squirrels, sandstone, moles, squirrels, hares and rabbits.
NP Lavrov divides all the animals on the excellence of acclimatization and re-acclimatization in the USSR in three groups. The first group of fur-bearing animals are not accustomed to new places, he includes fox, North American and European common foxes and domestic rabbit. The second group included NP Lavrov animals, the results of which are acclimated to 1940 were not yet clear: stone marten (Mountain), muskrat, raccoon and skunk American. They can already make a definite conclusion that the skunks in the USSR are not accustomed. For stone martens should say that the release of 59 martens in the Ryazan region in 1936 could not have given the positive economic results, as it was made only in one area, which is not the best living conditions for martens, compared with other regions of the USSR. Muskrat, the occupation of 1929-1940 years. in the amount of 3897 pieces. in 18 regions and republics of the USSR, also does not play a significant role in the fur trade of the country, and the workpiece desman skins now constitute only 15-20 thousand. year. The third group of fur-bearing animals, which was successful acclimatization, NP Lavrov took the mole, raccoon dog, column, steppe polecat (white), American mink, squirrel, marmot, squirrel, sandstone, muskrat, beaver river, nutria and hare -hare. This group includes also the sable. Simultaneously NP Lavrov said that the economic results of acclimatization and re-acclimatization of animals of the third group were not the same. Based on data on workpieces in the second half of the 50 years of the century, successful results were obtained from the muskrat, sable, mink and raccoon dogs are American.
In addition to the establishment and re-acclimatization of fur-bearing animals, scientific work before the war was conducted, and to resolve other issues hunting USSR. Thus, the All-Union Scientific Research Institute of hunting, for example, through his numerous assistants hunters based on records and test shooting of animals represented procurement organizations annual forecasts "harvest" of the main types of fur-bearing animals. The same institute, and professor of the Moscow Fur Institute through lectures and distributed printing experience the best hunters Fisheries Fur themselves apply the most advanced techniques and tools for hunting. In order to preserve and breeding fur animals had been many different biotech and ohotohozyaystvennyh events in different parts of the country. Relevant organizations, including unions and hunters annually to numerous expeditions to survey the hunting areas and industries across the country. These research trips began in 1926, when experts of Game went to the Pechora to examine the status of fur trade. In 1927, game wardens went to Yakutia, in the areas of the Yenisei and the Murmansk Region. In subsequent years, the organization of scientific expeditions made permanent and in most cases gave positive results.
The study of hunting fur in Soviet affairs was put immeasurably higher than in the pre-revolutionary period. The broad masses of hunters engaged in circles to improve the skills, actively exploring innovative methods of fishing furry animals and learning from experience the best hunting country enrich their knowledge by reading the hunting literature, which has been published since the 20's several times more than before.
From June 1918, was published fortnightly magazine "Hunting for All", and in 1924, instead log "Hunter", which released as a dozen booklets on hunting. Hunting magazines were published, in addition, in some regional cities and republics (Gorky, Vologda, Kirov, Chita, Blagoveshchensk, Central Asia, the Caucasus, etc.). For example, since 1923, published the magazine "Ural hunter" from 1924 – "Ukrainian hunter and fisherman," from 1923, in East Kazakhstan, Ust-Kamenogorsk, leaving substantial monthly "Hunter Altai" editor is a well-known writer EN Permitin. In 1925, the magazine was moved to Novosibirsk, where he began to appear under the name "Hunter and Pushnikov Siberia."
Central authority was monthly magazine "Fur Business", published by the People's Commissariat in 1925, this magazine covers all part of the Soviet fur farms, including hunting, fur harvesting, farming, rabbit, karakul, the fur industry and foreign trade fur-mehovshi goods. Instead, the magazine since 1930, was published fortnightly magazine "Soyuzpushnina", published by the All-Union Association "Soyuzpushnina." Its direction was the same as the magazine "Fur case." Both journals have published articles covering the latest innovations and achievements of foreign fur farms. In the mid 30's, with the transfer of industry organizations and fur farms from Narkomvneshtorg in different Commissariats, edition of the journal "Soyuzpushnina" was dropped.
Even more important for the study of the fur makes a wide ranging spectrum of fur economy of the USSR was the scientific literature, available in the form of theoretical works, known highly skilled. In 1920 he published "Proceedings Sayan Expedition", in 1926 – "Proceedings Barguzinskaya expedition." In 1921, a book was published Irkutsk Konstantinov "Fur fishing and fur trade in Yakutia ", in which he shared with the readers of many years experience in the fur farm. In 1923, a book was published by ID Dobrovolsky "The amount of produced furs and fur trade in the Far East" and N. Kulagina "Russian fur trade," in 1925 – SA Buturlina "Handbook Hunter" in 1926 g – VV Generozova "trapping" in 1928 Shukhov book "Hunting in the Northern District of Tarski," in 1929 – AA Paramonov, "fox and polar fox trade in the USSR ", in 1933 – AA Umnova" New hunting law ", in 1934 – the book of BM Zhitkova" acclimatization of animals and its economic value, "NA Bobrinsky book" Sketches of fishing animals and birds "and a book by AN Formozov, NP Naumov and ND Kiris" Ecology proteins "and the book" Fishing and hunting fauna ", in 1936 – GE Rakhmanina and M. Sergeeva "Essays on Hunting and farming of the Far North," in 1939 – GN Gassovskogo "Hunting Anadyr River Basin and its reconstruction," in 1940 – a collection of "trapping Yamal National District" in 1941 – Boytsova, Huber, Krasowski, Margolin and Russian – "Fur economy Far North. " Over those years, in addition, was published many other books on the fur of the USSR.
In the 30 years of the All-Union furskins association "Soyuzpushnina" produced a series of popular booklets on the life of fur-bearing animals, the hunt for them and the quality of their fur (for example, N. Lavrov, "fox", "water rat" , PB-ure gensona "Mink", "Ferrets," "Weasel" and so on). These pamphlets were published under the editorship of famous expert fur farms BM Zhitkova, who himself wrote a large number of valuable works on the subject.
Specialist of Game D. K. Solovyev wrote in the five parts of the "Fundamentals of hunting," published in the 1922-1929 years. This work, which had, however, many shortcomings covered fur farming in the historical context and used for a long time as a teaching tool in the study of the hunting industry in the USSR in some vysshihuchebnyh institutions. In 1926, a paper was published by GG Doppelmaira "Programs and How to study fur and hunting in Yakutia."
Extremely valuable benefits to students fur farming were published works and lectures hunting expert Professor PA Manteuffel, many students who later became well-known scientists in the field of fur farming.
Before the revolution in Russia was not a science, as a Commodity furs, no single standard for furs. Each firm assorted fur products in its own way, determining marketability of fur skins, depending on market conditions, focusing principally coupe cal rule – "do not be fooled, you will not sell." The Soviet Union has a long and hard work in the field of merchandising and standardization furs conducted by Professor, Doctor of Biological Sciences BA Kuznetsov, who published the 1932 work "The Fundamentals of Commodity fur raw materials." This book has become a major educational tool for students of various educational institutions of the USSR, having in the course of the program of merchandising furs. BA Kuznetsov strongly attracted the attention of workers organizations fur fur to the additional resources of the country – the new furs, who occupied an important place in the foreign and domestic trade of fur products (mole, hamster, rat, water, ground squirrel, chipmunk, etc. ). On this subject, Boris Kuznetsov repeatedly appeared in the magazines "Fur business" and "Soyuzpushnina", and in 1931 published a book "Minor species of fur." Total BA Kuznetsov has published more than 60 papers, not counting the small articles in magazines, newspapers and encyclopedias.
Besides these works, before World War II was published in Moscow, and on the periphery of a large number of books on fur farming, and others, and most of these works was a useful contribution to the study of hunting and fur business.
Before the Great October Socialist Revolution ohotovedcheskih training staff or one of the higher education institutions are not engaged. Only in the curriculum Petersburg Forest Institute in 1897, was introduced not required course of hunting, since 1906 is included as a special section in the course of biology. Since 20-ies biology course fishing fauna and game management has been taught in most forests of higher and secondary educational institutions and forest departments, as well as in a number of agricultural universities. In 1928, the rate of hunting was included in the Oriental Institute of Leningrad, where it was read in the Northern Department, which studied about 200 students – members of the Far North. In the 20's, first in Leningrad, and in 1923 in Moscow with the Moscow Forestry Institute operated one-year course of hunting, which released a large number of specialists of Game, then worked in the People's Commissariat, Gostorg, the Committee of the North and in other institutions. Ohotovedcheskie short courses were created in Omsk, Tashkent, Ust-Sysol'sk and other cities of the USSR, Irkutsk work of hunting courses, two-year program.
In 1929 he founded the Moscow Fur Institute, located in Balashikha, Moscow region. This institution, abolished in 1955, for 26 years of its existence, has released thousands of Game Biologists, karakulevodov and animal breeders, veterinarians and commodity animal materials.
Many experts prepared a fur farm in the 30s Irkutsk Agricultural Institute and several universities.