Frequently asked questions: "What to teach in mountaineering?", "How to teach mountaineering," and "Who will teach mountaineering?" With all of the content of the answers are incorporated in the "Program." If the "Program" in the form of wood, and its trunk to take home for the purpose of (direction), the strong twigs and branches will be the first level of subordination of the dominant goal. But wading through the branches, twigs, you can easily get lost in a spreading crown and did not see the barrel. This construction has to do with how the individual, and to the mountaineering team. Starting to learn this way, it should be more or less clear idea of the tree: The program — a tool to achieve or just the description of the target. How to choose a path and direction to achieve the goal — especially personal problem of the individual. Thus, we can approach the question — "What to teach in mountaineering?"
In this part of the building is a hidden danger of pressure on a person — one wants to learn how to walk in the mountains, and the other on the shower big walls.
More relevant is the question — "How to teach mountaineering?"
The answer lies in the meaningfulness of every step in learning and active personal position. Without waiting for the outcome of the principle — "let me teach," and not subject him to use the position — "I taught that to me is interesting and useful."
That is where the answer to the question "How do I learn?". Learn differentiated teaching through the consciousness and understanding of the learning process. Other paths often lead to mistakes.
"Who is going to teach?" Explorer of these ideas in the national mountaineering always been climbing instructor and coach sports teams.
So happened in the national mountaineering instructor that the figure is both a teacher, educator, and educator. And equally, the instructor is also a psychologist. Instructor — teacher teaches a variety of techniques to overcome the mountain of obstacles, assistance (when the need arises), the instructor — teacher educates his students the principles of accident-free and correct behavior in the mountains and understanding of the mountainous nature, instructor and psychologist should know and be able to implement the practice the principles of mutual relations in the group (even in combination), and the ability to be useful to the team. And many more that, without which it is impossible to say that — "I'm a climber."
The skillful combination of the three areas contributes to proper training mountaineering. Even if you try to analyze all classes in any technical discipline, one can easily see the close intertwining of these areas of education instructor. Without going into specific details (each with its own approach and his view of the generally accepted rules of the classes), and only limited to mere lists of questions that the instructor must answer yourself before any training on any topic, confirm the following words and concepts:
— Where (place) and what (level) techniques should show students?
— Which features of the mountain relief should first pay attention to students?
-How long is the approach to the place of employment and that it is possible to work on the way?
-How long does it take to practicing different techniques, and which ones are important?
-What security measures will ensure the maximum safety of students in these classes?
-As the correct accents and observe the necessary sequence of learning?
-As alternate psychological and physical activity and recreation students?
-Where is the instructor during the movement of / ligaments on the training route and how to organize with their own self-insurance?
-How to be prepared (the required number) educational equipment?
-How to be prepared a place of lessons, which must be checked and eliminated in the class?
-What to talk with the students to increase their interest in the activities?
-As personal training (appearance, quality personal equipment, its location) will help role model by students?
-How relevant is his methodical preparation of the tasks that will be addressed during the working day?
-If classes are paired branches, whether there was no agreed issues of interaction and the commands were in class?
It is quite clear that these issues are not fully disclose the amount of problems that the instructor faces daily in their work.
If I may say so, one of the features of the instructor is his ability to "reach out" to each of his students, — in spite of liking / disliking, he should do the work so that all students-goal made the ascent. But remember that seven of the 10 newcomers will not come to the mountain. But they need to perpetuate the most pleasant and bright memories of that period of his life. Unacceptable oblivion cognitive side of mountaineering — all without exception novice climbers go to the mountains to see the beauty of the mountains, learn to walk in them, and, if you like, then continue the acquaintance (to the sport is still very far away).
Climbing-goal. This is the most significant event for the man first took to the mountain top and the first who saw the charm opened his eyes a picture of boundless mountains. Should be kept in mind that for some of them — a process of self-affirmation, and the other to reach the top and had to overcome something in itself.
During any climbing (except emergencies) is not acceptable inflation rate movements (some instructors like to show off the speed of descent). At the top of the group / unit should give a general discussion, to give time for photography, breakfast. A note from a tour he shall put off the youngest member of the group and read it out loud to everyone. Then the instructor squad left their signatures on the note and gave it to the hero of the occasion.
Return from climbing to the base camp — a process that can also be a holiday. How had he not been in the camp of free climbers, they must organize and hold a solemn, funny, memorable meeting of two newcomers. Make a dedication to climbers, read and accept with humor written oath of young climbers, bring a glass compote or jelly. All of this memorable act will be remembered for a long time.
And another feature of the climbing instructor, never allow mentoring tone in communicating with students, remember that the instructor and students — is equal partners of the communication process, which enriches and teachers and students.
Pedagogical learning objectives climbers consist of qualification requirements for all phases of training. Perhaps the biggest challenge in this series is worth learning beginner climbers. They have, but the desire to start learning, there is almost no base. In addition to the notion that in the mountains is beautiful, hardly any of them are seriously prepared to accept all the rest: the strict observance of safety measures and proper behavior in the mountains, there is no understanding of the methods and techniques of movement on the mountain relief, etc. Based on this, the instructor lays a number of serious problems:
-his students have to realize the need for proper execution of motor skills;
-help them formulate the image of the investigated actions (verbal, visual and motor);
-and strangely seemed — to teach students the proper interpretation of the senses when done correctly, receptions;
-for on this basis, they will be able to more qualitatively perform the motor tasks that are the basis of skill level or training phase.
In this section you should know ways to correct errors that are hidden from students, but are always visible to the instructor:
-use of unnecessary movements (this is the desire to protect themselves in relief);
-distortion of the essence of movement (in its perceived problem is solved by virtue of their physical training);
-total enslavement and low speed (this is the sum of the above, and do not understand the personal safety in learning of a reception and as a consequence — to personal injury).
The concept of "conflict of motives" should be absolutely clear to the instructor, for without it he would not be able to understand what regulates the process of learning of each student.
Motive to achieve success — in itself a very strong factor in order to achieve concrete successes. This motif is constantly reinforced by the intermediate achievements: the next level, access to climbing higher grade, a diploma, a medal, honor to your team. But if he is not opposed to the system security, the overwhelming desire for success and its development could lead to the defeat, ruin.
Motive safety. At all times of the Soviet period of Russian mountaineering — it was assumed that this motive is self-evident norm. Tragically, the motive security during perestroika stopped (or — no longer active) to be the norm, perverse doctrines that in a democracy everything is allowed and everything is permissible, led to what became the acts are not uncommon, which previously was not heard . Unfortunately, the motive security today is defeated by the motive to achieve success.
Motive of getting rid of the failure (or just — cowardice.) Climbers (all skill levels), the actions of which actively manifest motive failures require greater attention. Positive cases, immediate assistance when you need it, praise the instructor about the smallest achieved success — all of which can help a person to take another look at ourselves. When this syndrome in the department should create an appropriate atmosphere of support. Sometimes the instructors themselves and senior surge his "terrible"
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-by skill level — the technology: the main objective is defined, then the system of particular tasks and the actual testing of techniques. In chapter raises issues of security, and then that leads to the effective operation;
-right action: for the climbing is a first-class value. Clear, correct action in any situation and any discounts to the circumstances;
-achieved — not the limit: by example to show students that they have achieved the knowledge and skills have a longer term.
Availability. Embodied only in practice. To do this, students must have a physical training slightly above the anticipated loads. They must consciously assimilate new knowledge and their moral consciousness must allow them to be an effective member of the climbing team. The main thing — do not minor details, and the elucidation of the core.
Visibility. During a demonstration of a new method to accompany his three main comments:
-first — to give a general impression of the study the action (for example, on the rocks, show the need for smooth movements — a lizard);
-second — clarification of meaning movements that lead to the development of admission;
-third — pay attention to the most important, to show the necessity of combining all the details together. (Note: the demonstrators to prepare in advance, demonstration (rehearsal on relief) should conduct an instructor, the most familiar with the methods of climbing, but the gist of comments from the crowd to distinguish details.)
Strength. This task-based learning: do not teach, if nothing is stored. There has to be installed on the primary storage: — "This is important! This should be remembered! ". Fight boredom in the classroom. The optimal number of new should not exceed one third of the studies, or lost digestibility new. Repetition — the widespread acceptance, but it is not unlimited. The quality of performance improves with repetition exercises 5-6 times. Stabilisation of-10-12 exercises. Increase leads to a deterioration of performance. Another important point: to develop, not to train. This means that everything is done consciously, understanding the beginning and end of reception. We must fight for your understanding.
Short stay in the mountains (at most 30 days a year) does not allow equally to implement these principles. And as a result, more attention should be given to the principle of consciousness / activity, focusing on the party's independent work on the development of the studied material, given that the strength of securing the necessary skills is achieved only by repeated occurrences over time. Methodological features of studies on individual parts of the program (private method) are reflected in the guidance, prefacing each topic.
It should be borne in mind that in the practice of teaching climbers predlagerny period, are widely used various inlet and simulation exercises: getting used to the steepness, depth (mistakenly relate to the concept — height), balance, control rope at joint motion and holding the rip and so n . Using simulation exercises, the instructor should pay attention to the difference between performance and application of simulation exercises to master the techniques in actual climbing, not to give a wrong impression about the ease and security.
The instructor needs to learn in a short period to determine the degree of development of member training programs of the previous stage and towards the elimination of the detected gaps. This process requires a lot of attention from the instructor, kindness and sensitivity both to the inspected party, and to his predecessor, the instructor, regardless of whether there is a direct contact with them or not. From this perspective, a special responsibility is the response given by the student instructor after completing the training phase.
Irresponsible, limited to generalities, characteristics inhibited the training, especially at the higher level, discredit the system of education and training and, of course, the author of such characteristics.
Evaluating the effectiveness of learning and growing skills climber appropriate based on the following assumptions:
— Each class or climbing should add something to the student's knowledge, to give him something new. Instructor in accordance with the content of training should ensure that these provisions are implemented;
— qualification criteria climber — a personal experience, the ability to plan and execute plans, to make independent decisions. It is from this perspective, the instructor should primarily assess the performance of the participant, to be able to emphasize the function of the collective in meeting their plans at various stages of education;
— emphasis on mutual control and mutual assistance, mutual correction of errors.
Keeping in mind that the training of climbing in the training program combined with sport, the instructor must find the right balance between education and sports elements in the implementation of this part of the program, giving absolute priority educational elements and ensuring that maximum independence in the actions of participants.
There is a very regular kind of teaching techniques "do as I do." But not the one we call dogmatic. Here is thinner. There are a number of technical and tactical techniques and experience that is gained only in practice (books are not assistants — they are practically on the subject have none).
It is a situational learning, learning in the process of ascension. In this case, to be considered what the instructor should teach you how to be outside of the compulsory curriculum. To a great extent it relates to the stages of learning SP, SS and SM. Moving from one stage to another school, dischargers should definitely get a new technical and tactical expertise.
Mountainous terrain at the seeming uniformity, is a set of very different tasks for a person to rise to the top. For example, why a set of techniques and methods of climbing insurance, applied to just traversed the site is not suitable for standing in front stenochke, so similar in appearance to just a past? Why is the same type of relief, but at different times, it is necessary to use not only different ways of movement, but also to organize the insurance? Why is the transition from one type of terrain to another, on this boundary should do a reinforced point of insurance against ordinary? Solutions such situations are usually not found in the printed editions. This is perceived by experience.
That is what has to teach his students the instructor, creating at all unusual for them climbing situational problems. And the more the instructor resorts to such educational practice, the more often students have to solve them in the direction of travel along the route, the more experience they will accumulate. The faster climber can estimate the change in the situation, the sooner it will be able to change equipment reception, the more skill he demonstrates, the more security will be ensured, both personal and group.
At the time, the quality of the instructor's work is influenced by a tactical and methodical technique of performing any climbing with a group / department. Directly dependent on the skills of the participants, each coming climbing instructor divided into sections and instructed his disciples to be a leader on the site. Moreover, the distribution of responsibilities begins with the preparation for the ascent back in camp: route clearance documents, statement, receipt and distribution of the products, etc. Each of the "educational leaders" (as they soon became known) conducted the analysis and actions of their group on the task he site. It was a very useful practice of the instructor. With the transition to the next stage of learning "educational leaders" appointed not through the route, and all the climbing.
Of course, this practice imposes on the instructor's additional responsibilities and duties, but the result has always had a particular result — or the student knows and he can continue to rely on a more serious order, or it can be recommended only to climb a certain level and can not be admitted to more difficult climbs .
Sign of skill — the ability to quickly (and correctly) to change the way the insurance when the situation on the route.
Such a practice was typical of the instructor to the period, which we call "learning mountaineering." In those times there was the claim that not only properly executed technique, but also a clear policy — is the foundation for the security, which is so necessary for gorovoskhozhdeniyah.
Need to make clear that the lost principles of safe operation, as well as the lost former instructor skills — losses are first-class order and today's instructors need to comprehend it all yourself. To a great extent the question is not so much to know what to teach participants, and to somehow hold their own on the route and still survive. Working today with dischargers, the instructor must educate themselves in many ways, learning to think, learning what is called experience and dynamic stereotype.
Example. One group of climbers on Mount Elbrus, moving from the gorge. Irikchat, rose to a "shelter", because not once bound in bundles. During this movement one of the members of the group fell into a crevasse, and somehow managed to get out of it. Of course, while he received multiple injuries. To the question: "Have you tried to contact the rope?" — The head replied: "Why? All cracks safely traversed by crawling. "
What is needed here is the analysis? Complete lack of experience and knowledge — all they did was too illogical.
When this group was on a plateau without cords, and they fell into a crevasse party is, how would one situation. But when the steepness of the slope was gradually increased, the complexity of the situation began to grow — by continuing to go without cords, they already could not help derail a team member.
Another example of the same order. Halfway between the "barrel" and "Shelter" (climbing Elbrus) participants were moving groups easily jump a little crack and moved on. On the trail there are two non-climber. Staying near the cracks and assessing the situation, they got a rope, tied, belaying each other, went through a crack and went. They are in no way disturbed that all the previous people do not connect with a rope. They acted in accordance with their experience and skills, we have decided — and that's it.
In matters of insurance everyone has their own truth, but life — alone. So on this topic you can write more than one book.
It is appropriate to cite an example, however, already ancient times, but as a show that temporal distance will not play any role.
Group of French climbers who came to "Uzunkol" directed the chief guides Student Society FSJT Robber Despi, lecturer of French National School of mountaineering and ski business in Chamonix (He has already had about 30 alpine trails 6 cc). In the group of climbers was a disciple and personal Despi, who was about to enter the school for the course guides.
This pair chose to climb a wall is not a past peak chocolate. It was not just climbing — it was a long training cycle, starting from the foot of the wall. Despi first pass another site (hit hooks, hang loops, led the way.) At the end of the rope Despi organized themselves maillon rapide and descent down to the mate bond, beat out all of his own hooks score, shot all the equipment. Then they switched roles — forward left his student, but as the leader of the bunch. Next to him was raised teacher took another rope down to the
student, and he again led the way — and so they went fly the route. But the task for each new rope Despi put before him a new one.
The meaning of this technique was as follows: the student, seeing the work as a teacher, had to repeat the passage of each new rope as the leader of the bunch. But not just to repeat, and to show their vision of the route, its the technical challenges, to show their versions of the movement.
A brief summary: in this unusual style of movement, two went the route in a light day, the route they have left only two not embossed box (under the eaves), leaving no (!) "Household" waste and very surprised that Soviet mountaineers to that time did not pass this great wall.
Safety issues must permeate the entire training program and always be in sight instructor. These issues are dealt with in detail in the section "Safety Training." Here we should emphasize the main thesis — that there were no accidents, no need to break away! And for this instructor, showing and explaining any individual technology or technique interaction must emphasize how to ensure safety in its implementation.
Ensure safe — the correct and safe methods of execution equipment movement. From the beginning of training to give students the correct interpretation of the concept of velocity of movement on the route. Speed — fast alternation is slowly and carefully executed techniques. This truth is especially bad comes to climbing, backpacking. There will have to digress from the main theme, and consider some of the issues related to the arrival of climbing athlete climber.
Mountaineering and rock climbing — two independent sport. Often the athlete is engaged and mountaineering, and rock climbing. In these sports have in common, but each also has its own features. It would seem that the same stable skills can be transferred from one species to another. But where does it lead? To answer this question, we must determine the basic qualities that produce mountaineering and rock climbing.
Nature and characteristics of quality training for climbing is the ability to pass a certain rock route in the shortest time. Route chosen and pre-prepared judges and coaches. In this case, personal safety it provides judges and coaches.
A characteristic feature of the same quality training climbers — its ability to provide a reliable and safe ascent ligament. Moreover — to provide and prepare the way for the passage of the entire group. And speed (time: minutes, seconds) movement immediate value is not.
So, coming to a rock climbing climber, not overwhelmed by excessive vanity brings reliable, but more measured passing competitive climbing routes. The arrival of a climber climbing a means quick and beautiful ascent, while the inability to secure the security, because it is already used to the fact that it lies on the conscience of the judge, coach. Moreover, at the high end climber (as opposed to the climber) special influence factor of the route as quickly as possible without fear of failure. He should not be afraid of failure! He must go at risk. To get rid of a "complex" of reliability, he trains stall, falling and hanging on a rope referees.
Certainly, in training climber also has an element of risk, the face of risk. But to her, as a rule, the climbers do not reach. Work at risk in climbing is dangerous. Even in training failure on the rocks is not allowed.
From the above it should be concluded that a large number of similar techniques in mountaineering is not a common base of these sports, there are some fundamental differences. The transition from rock climbing to mountaineering athlete requires profound psychological adjustment. This should be under constant supervision of trainers or instructors leading the work with such athletes.
High individual climbing technique and almost no technical and organizational skills to ensure coverage in the "former" climbers pose a greater nuisance than the arrival of "low-speed" climber in climbing.
But back to the main topic of conversation. Much of the time (80%) is spent on the climbing routes on traffic organization and security, and a rest — to direct the movement of participants. Therefore, the speed of ascent reserves to be found in impeccable organization of the movement in accordance with all safety regulations. Attention instructor in the classroom and during the ascent must be constantly drawn to this provision. Each participant failure, regardless of the consequences should be evaluated as an emergency. Each PE, small or large, should be a detailed analysis to determine the cause of failure and to draw conclusions for further training.
Learn the techniques and tricks samozaderzhaniya, these techniques should be considered not only as a means to delay already begun falling, but also as an opportunity to prevent it.
Equipment and the principles of mutual insurance and self-insurance — the most crucial and difficult part of climbing education. This is due to both the subject matter, and learning difficulties: it has to do is basically imitation and "theoretical" considerations. Disruptions in the real climbing is not so frequent, and check yourself "in practice breakdown" Fortunately, we have not for everyone. This part of the training methods in more detail in the relevant section.
However, each climber must clearly understand the nature of mutual insurance and self-insurance, to represent the mechanics hold mate ligament disruption, and to be able to consciously choose the most effective arguments for this particular situation the way insurance. Must have an understanding of the features and the relative reliability of the pinning points (hooks, loops, etc.) on various forms of relief. Testing of these, it should be conducted in all training sessions and climbing. Trained to insurance, the instructor must convince party that conscious and skillful mastery of this technique, always ready to use them in the real world of climbing — the basis of qualifications climber.
An example of constant vigilance must surely be the instructor, follow all safety precautions.
Safety issues require serious self-examination, self-developing skills. For this purpose, each instructor, coach, arrester recommended to read the book: VK Vinokurov, A. Levin, I. Martynov "Security in mountaineering" (Moscow, FIS, 1983) I. Martynov, A.I.Martynov "Safety and reliability in mountaineering" (Moscow, SportAkademPress,
On the senior stages of learning more and more attention should be paid to the formation of relationships and interactions in an educational or sports department. Despite the temporary nature, every educational department or
sports team should be considered as a team, united by a common purpose not only in the classroom, or climbing.
Coordinated team, mutual understanding, mutual aid and discipline — as the basis of achievements in sport and the safety of mountaineering activities in general. The role of the instructor in the "putting together" of the group, it is difficult to overestimate. It should be used all the possibilities: preparation for climbing and hiking, gathering information, the development and design of the route documentation, drawing a tactical plan of climbing, the distribution of responsibilities within the group. All this work is carried out by the participants themselves, but must be under the supervision and guidance of an instructor, with a maximum promotion initiative participants.
Instructor is very important skill to concisely express simple and interesting study questions make the reports on the analysis. Equally undesirable as a long dry lectures and vulgar tale in pursuit of a cheap shirt-guy reputation. The best form is confidential talk, illustrated with examples from personal experience, a good, clean language, no trendy jargon. It is very difficult to learn to lay his talk at a given time. Therefore, it must be prepared in advance, and even (especially at the beginning of the instructor) rehearsed. At the same time, remember that the continuous use of the synopsis is not conducive to raising the profile of the instructor. Along with care and kindness to the participants, the instructor should be intolerant of each violation of the order or discipline and ethics.
The results of sporting achievements and activities are recorded climber himself. Assessment of the situation and the difficulty of climbing based on the personal experiences of the participants. Direct supervision by judges, coaches and spectators is virtually impossible. That is why the main task of the instructor — to train their students in the objectivity and self-criticism. "Sow an act — you reap a habit, reap a habit — reap a character, reap character — reap a destiny!" In this saying the essence of educational work.
The ability to combine in one person the commander and friend comes to the instructor immediately, but keep in mind a reasonable balance of these parties in the instructor's activities must always. Sports instructor qualification largely reinforces his authority in the eyes of the participants. But we must try to ensure that the qualification has manifested itself primarily in the actions of an instructor, in a perfect demonstration of techniques to safe and reliable behavior during the trekking and climbing, the ability to firmly and easily meet their commander's duties. In any case, the instructor, working directly with the participants, should (in contrast to other sports) show athletic performance at least equal to that which it expects to receive from his student. First of all, this means that the instructor must be able to climb the appropriate level of difficulty, along with his disciples and led the school division.
We should take up the work of the senior instructor level — squad leaders.
Particularly important functions is the commander of the instructor-led-squad leader. It is very important to determine the degree of independence of each instructor in person, in relation to its sports and teaching experience. Detachment commander must direct and control the day to day work of squad leaders, especially those who are new to teaching, observing the maximum kindness and tact, in time to be able to detect and correct errors instructor, not to wound their self-esteem and do not discredit it in the eyes of participants . At the
However, he must show the necessary rigor, and even rigidity to the lazy and unscrupulous trainers.
All training and educational issues concerning the separation of its members individually and should be handled by / or involving the squad, and in difficult situations and the commander of the detachment. For rapid and flexible management detachment appropriate systematically short critiques training cycles, combining them with the mounting conversation for the next cycle, ensuring consistency in the understanding and treatment of the topics or training problems.
For introductory talks on educational topics commander plans to start changing, charging units and their commanders at the worst interns. The same plan is determined and demonstrators techniques to illustrate these conversations. This provides the possibility of advance preparation and even the rehearsal sessions. The most critical conversations commander conducts itself, but with the obligatory presence squad.
Special attention must be paid commander density classes for maximum intensification of the educational process and the use of all resources, in particular the second half of the day for practical classes. On the senior stages of learning this technique with sufficient predlagernoy and theoretical training can not only compensate for the gaps that occur because of bad weather, but will use the saved time to climb.
The efficiency of the unit to a large extent depends on the joint team effort of instructors and participants. Creating a business, friendly tone in the team — the first and most important task of the commander of the detachment. Unanimity in the broad sense of the term, cooperation, exchanges of experience, the preservation of good traditions, continuous efforts to improve the educational and athletic skills — these signs of a healthy and strong instructor team.