Yellow ground squirrel or gopher-sandstone — citellus fulvus lichtenstein. Reproduction and growth of young

Yellow gophers different subspecies differ in terms of puberty. As we pointed out (1955), in South Kazakhstan and Chu valley squirrels participate in reproduction after the first winter hibernation at the age of 11-12 months, and in the northern parts of the range — after the second hibernation. Smaller subspecies are more hasty than larger ones. It should, however, be noted that the number of participants in the semi-mature females breeding ground squirrels from the south-eastern part of the area does not exceed 9.5% (Kydyrbaev, 1959). In males, puberty occurs later, so they are involved in reproduction only after the second winter, as when coming out of hibernation and during the rut they are Nonincrease testes and sperm in them are not detected.

Adult squirrels come out of hibernation with fully developed testes and long before waking animals, these bodies come to an active state. Therefore mating begins soon after reaching the surface of mature females awakening later than males. Gon is in a short time and usually lasts 10-15 days, while the overall length of this period is about 40 days.

The second half of the rut and stale almost imperceptibly. During rutting squirrels greatly excited them at this time attracting any high place, a handful of fresh earth on a background of snow and even minor largest Copanca left on suslikovinah. Animals because of its activity caused by sexual excitement, visit such places, willingly and quite common with any females ready to mate. So there is no reason to believe that gophers — monogamy.

By the end of animals rutting activity gradually decreases. Males and single females begin to feed heavily, and pregnant females holed up in caves. At this time, there is a sharp increase in the weight of squirrels: males and single females by zhironakopleniya and pregnant females due to the development of embryos.

Decisive impact on the number of species has a degree of participation of females in reproduction. Each year, approximately 40% of mature females in the island Barsakelmes not reproduce and, in addition, some squirrels, at least the nominal subspecies, breeds in a year, thereby slowing down the reproduction of the population.

Number of embryos in the yellow ground squirrel on the same island ranges from 1 to 17. The most frequently occurring number of embryos and the average number per female varies little from year to year, so this factor on the movement number of species is influenced not so much. Some changes are found, depending on the geographical location of places. Thus, for the nominal subspecies, according to our data, the average number of embryos per female is 8.4, for squirrels in the south-east of the range, it is seven (Kydyrbaev, 1959), and on the south of the range — four (Kashkarov and Lane-Sokolov, 1927). The value of deaths in young contrive life period is 40% (on the island of Barsakelmes about 30%). A large percentage of deaths observed in the wort after they were out of their burrows, resettlement, etc. About the size of departure of young per year can be judged by the number of remaining semi-mature specimens. On average, over-wintering individuals in the population have: in Muyunkum — 22. in the foothills of Jambul-tion district, Almaty region — 18.5 and on the island of Barsakelmes — 14%.

Young out of the norm in the 23-25-days of age, when they are fed with milk. Calendar dates vary year to year, depending on the geographic location. Depending on the nature and timing of the spring breeding season is observed and mass yield of the young, who in some years, comes very late. So, on the island of Barsakelmes in 1942 the first young animal near the hole was produced on April 27. May 5, began to accumulate in normal seagulls like foreshadowing mass output wort, which, however, came not before 17 -18 May. In the first Koskuduksknh saxaul output Young gophers in 1953 is marked on April 27 at the settlement of the great gerbil. Animals barely crawled out of the inclined hole course, and nearby was a fresh vertical stroke dug gopher before leaving hibernation. These burrows at a depth of 0.8 m connected with each other, but young animals often use slanted way. Two ground squirrels, not quite his sight, crawled away from the hole to 5 liters and then stroll back to hear the call of the mother's voice. May 23, ie, 26 days after the first young of the holes, produced animal, which weighed 60 g and had a body length of 14 see Suslenok fed milk and at the same time were found in the stomach has not chewed green leaves of grasses.

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