Thermal balance in choosing a sleeping bag
The main task of sleeping bag — to keep warm, and the main source of heat is the man. How do I generate heat? It depends primarily on the metabolism or metabolism. Here's what to consider when choosing a sleeping bag:
1) Complexion: obese people have a lower metabolism. More precisely, they consume more than they produce. In people of normal physique metabolism is balanced, they absorb as much produce. In field conditions often happens is that a person gets fewer calories than usual. This is most evident in near-polar, polar and alpine expeditions. In these conditions, the body uses its own resources to restore metabolic processes. Accordingly, more fat people will quickly recover heat and energy balance than the more thin.
2) Gender: Women considered to be more heat-loving than men. According to the latest standard EN13537, the minimum temperature for a woman at 5 ° C higher than that of men.
3) Age: metabolism changes with age. Older people produce less heat than the young. Young people to have increased heat exchange, so they comfort temperature may well be 5 ° C lower than that of human maturity. The children, especially infants, do not have this property sufficiently. Their metabolism unbalanced and gradually slow down with age, so it is difficult for them to determine the average temperature.
Almost all studies of heat produced by people whose way of life increases resistance to cold: climbers, explorers, military. As a rule, it is men aged 18 to 40 years, most of his life conducting the air. They are likely to unconditionally "fit" temperature thermal conditions specified on the sleeping bag, discussed below.
It is necessary to choose a sleeping bag so Zant
Different sleeping bags are designed for different temperature conditions. To distinguish them, the sleeping bags usually indicate "comfort temperature" and "extreme heat." It is the temperature to be "outside" — that is, in a tent or in the open air.
Comfort temperature — the temperature range in which a person can sleep without feeling cold all night. In this range, there is an upper and lower limit. The upper temperature limit of comfort — the highest temperature at which you can sleep in a sleeping bag with no sweating (usually it is evaluated with testing unbuttoned sleeping bag and unfolded with a hood). The lower limit of the comfort temperature — the lowest temperature that provides people 8 hours of uninterrupted sleep.
Temperature extremes — the lowest temperature at which a sleeping bag to protect people from hypothermia (hypothermia). Usually, this temperature must ensure 6:00 uncomfortable sleep, but without reducing the body temperature to dangerous targets. Such data is currently regulated by national and international standards for sleeping bags, including the European EN13537.
Temperature EN13537 standard was developed by the European group of producers of goods and outdoor adopted in 2002. Since January 1, 2005 came into force its new edition, which includes testing of sleeping in the laboratory. All sleeping bags available for sale after January 1, 2005 are required to comply with EN13537. After receiving test results that meet the requirements, the manufacturer has the right to place on their products CE marked.
The standard applies to the European countries, and of the Russian companies that produce sleeping bags, while only BASK can afford certified according to European standard EN13537.
The main difference from the previous standard — the presence of the temperature scale on the description of the product provided by the testing laboratory. It looks like this.
Let us consider an example.
The average woman can sleep comfortably in the sleeping bag with an air temperature of 22 ° C to 4 o C, and the average man — at a temperature of 22 ° C to-1OS. The catalog of products, respectively, will be specified maximum limit of comfort, in this case, 1OS. This sleeping bag should keep enough heat to prevent hypothermia (hypothermia) at up-18OS. But at temperatures from 1OS to-18OS is a risk to health.
To choose a sleeping bag must understand the temperature scale
T max — the maximum ambient temperature in which a person in a sleeping bag is comfortable
T comfort — the lower limit of comfort for the average woman
T limit — lower limit of comfort for the average man
Extreme T — zone at risk of hypothermia
How to choose a sleeping bag filler
Down sleeping bags — the most warm and expensive. Even the "cool" synthetics in their properties have not yet caught up with fluff and is unlikely to catch up in the coming years — it is light, well-compressed and then completely recovers its volume, as it is the good thermal insulator. Pooh must be from waterfowl, as it has a natural lubricant, largely prevents absorption of moisture — otherwise it will start to rot. Eiderdown — ideal filler for a sleeping bag, but it will cost you many hundreds of dollars. The more common type of down for a sleeping bag — it's goose. One must consider, in what climate grown birds whose feathers are in your sleeping bag. For example, feathers, assembled in Russia (a country with a cold climate), better than the Chinese or any Western country.
Such a filler as down has two important characteristics for subsequent operation. The first — the ratio of "down / feather." Pen prevents premature caking down, but decreases heat-saving properties. In the most warm down sleeping bags pen no more than 10-20%. This characteristic, as FP (fill power) shows how resilient and capable of down to return to the original volume after compression. FP is measured in units that correspond to the volume in cubic inches, which is restored to pre-compressed 1 ounce of down. FP-quality fluff has over 600 units. In sleeping bags used by all established firms down with the index fp not below 550. The best from the existing Pukhov has fp is 800.
Down sleeping much afraid of water, when wet it loses its volume, and hence all their insulation. And, unfortunately, it is a very long dry even under normal conditions, so it needs additional protection.
Sintepon and holofaybery — the cheapest, are designed for temperatures up to 5 degrees (range -10 degrees), weighing from 1,100 to 2,300 g and were most prevalent in our country. In principle, for fishing in Karelia or Akhtuba summer to hunt roaring currents or if you stay in tents (not to mention the cabin or village hut) are suitable sleeping. They are very compact, lightweight, and most importantly, dry quickly, even in the cold, if you have it soaked. The latter property makes them indispensable in water hikes.
The main drawback — pretty fast caking, accompanied by a progressive loss of heat-saving properties.
2sl — up to 5 degrees
3PL — up to 10 degrees
4sl — up to 20 degrees
Should select a group of high-quality mid-range extenders. With the weight of a sleeping bag about 2 kg, it can keep warm in temperatures down to -25 ° C. Sometimes on the basic properties of such fillers are not inferior to the most expensive, but most often have a larger volume in a packed condition and shorter life spans. The main producers: Holofill, QualoFill, Thermoloft, Warmloft, Powerfill Soft and others.
The most expensive and high-quality fillers allow sleeping with a total weight of 2 kg to feel comfortable in it at temperatures down to -35 ° C.
Such fillers create from silicone fibers, which are constantly kept in longitudinal cavity air, providing heat-saving properties. Different fillers of different companies on density and thickness of the fibers, the number of internal holes in each fiber. Because of the elasticity of the material such filler does not lose its properties and after 6.5 seasons of active use. Sleeping with silicone fibers closer to the rest of fluff — lightweight (900 g), warm, easy to wash, it is very fast drying and almost do not absorb moisture. The most well-known and high quality brands of fillers — is Hollofil, Thermolite, Aerofiber the firm Dupont and 3M Thinsulate on.
Materials for interior and exterior surfaces sleeping
As an external material in the production of sleeping bags are often used different versions of nylon (nylon).
Exception — down sleeping bags, they have established a special fabric, which optimally "hold" fluff, such as Pertex, Ultrex and others. These tissues vetrozaschischayuschie, waterproof and highly breathable. The external fabric of down, and, rarely, synthetic sleeping bags are sometimes applied to a special membrane that protects it from moisture in and thus allows the fabric to "breathe", that is to remove moisture from the body to the outside. This type of tissue called Dry-Loft. Some manufacturers to use the inner surface of the cotton sleeping bag.
We recommend the use of sleeping with a person or underside of a waterproof fabric. Down sleeping bags are manufactured and tinsuleytovye cheap — nylon with PU (polyurethane) impregnation. This lack of a solid, not cloth bags. Poor pass moisture (sweat) in the cold becomes a stake, impregnation collapses in 2 years and the unit will "poison" down on the surface. Expensive — from fabrics "Perteks", "Ultreks", Neilon tafet-ta SIRO (last — an analogue of our calender but pokachestvennee)
How to choose a sleeping bag given the size of the body and the personality of the
The standard length of a sleeping bag — 220-235 cm with the hood. If you are taller 185 and above should take care of purchasing a sleeping bag size XL. And though you will still extremely broad in the shoulders or in the shoulders, is to figure sleeping on her figure, and it is better if the seller will do this to get into a sleeping bag in the shop — an example. Climb inside the selected sleeping bag, fully fasten and secure the zipper, tighten the hood, leaving the smallest possible aperture. The only way to check whether a sleeping bag suitable length. Either on the hood or in the legs should not stretch the fabric so as not to appear "cool place". In the area of hand when it should be enough space. The best option, if easily bent legs sidewalls not taut. To further define the width and length of think: will you sleep in underwear or wear extra clothes, plan a dream turn along with a sleeping bag or inside it.
Children — 71 x 145 cm Total area cut to warm up faster with minimal loss of heat. Available in bright, cheerful colors.
Teenage — 73 x 167 cm narrower or shorter sleeping bags for teenagers or adults undersized.
Standard — 84 x 190 cm standard sleeping bags for adults of average height.
Double (Sparky) — Sleeping with the possibility of pairing. Field uncomplicated communication procedures (standard fasteners such as "lightning") obtained a two-, three-sleeping. In this sleeping bag is always much warmer. Larger or longer than the standard — for high, or greater — for full or those who like to sleep freely. From 84 x 198 cm and 96 x 205 cm
How to choose a sleeping bag and check the quality of
How to check the quality of the product? Lightning should be large, open-close without sticking, but with some difficulty. The filler should be distributed evenly without lumps. It is desirable that a further quilted sleeping bag in several places that the filler does not throw. If you are planning sostegivat few sleeping bags, in addition to remember that lightning should be split in such models often to the right sleeping bag sleeping bag with zip-fastened left by lightning.
A good sleeping bag brand features:
— lack of 'cool', those quilted through, pointing;
— in expensive models strip covering the zipper;
— in expensive models cuff, closing the entrance to the sleeping bag;
— special clasp around hood (hook or button), which prevents spontaneous unzipping in a dream;
— Special protective tape, filed with zipper inside, prevents biting tissue damage lightning and protective coating on the fabric;
— in expensive models and lightning in the bottom of the cocoon sleeping bag, so that it can be turned inside out (inside) and faster drying (one layer of insulation, dries faster than two!)
— dark outdoor fabric — it is rapidly heated, which is an advantage in drying sleeping in field conditions;
— lack of curves and lines visible fixing, technological holes.