Roe — one of the most beautiful animals in the deer family. Within the country it inhabits the forest and steppe zones, as well as places of Crimea and the Caucasus.
No it only in the center of the European part of Russia, outside the southern boundary of the taiga, in the open steppes of the Ukraine, the Volga region and deserts. In recent years, deer from the Urals, Siberia, Baikal, the Far East is gradually moving to the south, and from the west — to the central regions of the country.
Abroad deer inhabit the whole of Western and South-Eastern Europe, in Asia Minor, in the northwestern part of Iran, in the forests of Mongolia, Korea, much of China (from the north-east to the eastern Tibet).
In our country roe forms three subspecies: the European, Siberian and Far East.
Roe Deer lives in the Kaliningrad region, the Baltics, Western Ukraine, is found in the forests of Bryansk, Smolensk, Voronezh and other areas and separate centers in Transcaucasia. The European roe characterized by small size, light, slightly outstretched horns, very close together at the base. Animal's weight — 12 to 40 kg.
Roe deer inhabit the Northern Caucasus, the Volga, the Urals and the rest of the Asian part of the vast coverage area. It was larger than the European. Its weight reaches 59 kg. Horn of big, beautiful, wide-set and covered with tubercles ("pearls").
Far roe somewhat smaller his Siberian cousins, but larger than the European ones.
Fragmented habitats deer caused not only persecution by man, but also the influence of the depth of snow cover, greatly limits the possible existence of ungulates. Average maximum snow depth of 50 cm sets limits resettlement roe north as in European and Asian parts of the country. Especially a lot of deer inhabit, where the snow depth is not more than 20-30 cm (Transbaikalia, Ussuri region, Primorye and the like).
Roe deer live in the plains and in the mountains, preferring the middle belt.
Forest steppe — a favorite place deer habitat. The most typical of these hilly or sloping mountainous areas close to fresh water, covered with deciduous or mixed forest.
In pure coniferous they live only if it contains leafy undergrowth. Thick bushes are essential to deer.
These animals are found even in the steppe, where the ravines are shrubs or tall. Areas of dense forest and deer avoid hold margins, forest edges and clearings (this is particularly true for the Baltic States) Last to them, apparently, are just as necessary as the bushes.
In the Siberian taiga deer keep only where you are or coastal meadows or grassy marshes. Often they live in a relatively open and high-field, near some areas of forests or groves. In Poland, Germany to settle in the forest park. Where well-placed security deer and strictly limited to hunting, and they live in densely populated areas (in the lowland forests of Lithuania, Kaliningrad Oblast, Ukraine). It has further to the wide dispersal of roe deer in the forest and forest-steppe zones.
Winter deer wee hooks Xia mainly kidneys, shoots, bark of trees and shrubs, willow, poplar, aspen, birch, and in the southern areas — oak, ash, beech, elm, ash, cherry, even buckthorn. I'd love to eat acorns, beech nuts. With a lack of feed dug out of the snow moss, lichens and grasses.
In hard winter for them willingly feed hay. Summer grazing. Roe deer often visit woodland glades, meadows, fields sown with clover. By fall zhiruyut to berry fields. D by eating mushrooms, pick wild fruit.
Deer drink several times a day, preferring flowing clean water, but use and stagnant sources. In the eastern areas in spring and summer like to visit salt licks.
Zhiruyut deer mostly in the morning and evening, in the winter — most of the day. Favorite feeding areas — edge, clearing clearing. On feeding animal acts restless, constantly moving, looks around.
At rest deer move a step or trot, but disturbed, running light jumps rasplastyvayas above ground. Jumping to reach 6 feet or more in length and 2-2.5 m in height, but the great distance as fast beast can not run, he quickly runs out of steam. In places of permanent habitat for deer go to the same place, in the tracks, knocking the snow and chernotropu narrow path, especially noticeable when turning through clearings and ditches.
During the pursuit of deer interrogated, running back and forth, and then make a "discount" (roll to the side) and go jumping.
Traces of male markedly blunted and rounded, females — narrower and more pointed. Cal as nuts 10-14 mm in length is usually in groups.
Swimming deer is very easy and good, but not quick, and the Amur they sometimes travel long water obstacles.
At rest deer emit a prolonged, gentle sound, like a squeak, which emit as many deer, not opening his mouth. High and prolonged squeak when frightened kids goes into jerky. Adult males and females roar. Roar a short and abrupt, very strong, kind of reminiscent of barking. Males are much more likely to bark females. Inexperienced hunters in Siberia often take their roar for roar bear. During rutting goats, except roar sounds an alarm.
There are well-developed roe hearing and smell. Eyesight is weak, almost like a hare.
Males rather peevish temper: they even beyond the period of the rut always fighting and kicking females. Females are more gentle and defenseless.
Roe deer are prone to small and large migrations. The first related to the transition to the wintering grounds of the beast. Go deer in small groups, slowly, stopping for zhirovok, sometimes get in large herds. Happy animals are, and at night move. These transitions occur from year to year on the same routes. Animals go in the cold and blizzards. Not detain them, and rivers which they swim even at the beginning of freeze-up. In this case, deer sometimes die.
Large migrations — is mass migration, and deer herds are large, moving is not a solid mass, and random. Direction of these movements are uncertain and irregular. The transition takes place over long distances, the animals are moving fast and suddenly inhabit places where they previously did not exist. The reason for these migrations depends, apparently, on the sudden change of food regime, or adverse weather conditions (deep snow, sleet, floods and heavy rains in summer), which causes an abrupt change and feeding conditions.
Large migrations roe, its exit from the forest into the open steppe explained and search for "therapeutic" food. Usually it coincides with a change in climatic conditions — the transition from summer to winter and vice versa. So all kinds of food are bitter herbs, and especially white wormwood, which increases the body's resistance to infection with intestinal parasites.
Migrations to winter begin after the rut in September — October, and to the "ryabryu end.
Migrations to the coast of the Baltic Sea in Kaliningrad from Poland and vice versa are observed, but rarely.
During this period, males and females roam with the young animals. Old males shed their antlers in late November — December, the young — in late December — early January in November, start to grow horns of goats born this year. Young goats horns clean in February, old — from late April to May.
In December and January deer are almost sedentary life, spending much of his time in the woods, especially in snowstorms, digging themselves round seasoning to the ground. Deer lie almost side by side, and in calm weather, away from each other. If a lot of snow, the animals tend to go on blowing. Sometimes they walk away from the forest to the grassy nekoshenye meadows or fields. In the hilly forest areas are kept on open slopes. The appearance of flooring — a disaster for the deer. Older deer in search malosnezhya at this time get into the thicket of the forest, and the young are often peels legs are exhausted from hunger, becoming a prey to wild beasts.
In late February, older males are kicking against the herd. With the first thaw deer go to the southern edge of the solar prigrevami for zhirovok in April roam the forests. At the same time there is a return migrations to places of summer habitat. Such migrations are especially characteristic of Transbaikalia and Primorye.
During the heat of summer (June-July), roe deer are kept shady, cool places, sometimes climbing high into the mountains. In August, the females at the time of leaving their young, and the young the whole period of their marriage mothers spent g thickets and bushes close to the parents.
Deer rut occurs from late July to September. The height of the rut — end August-early September. Some individuals who have lost their young in the spring, estrus begins even at the end of June (too early) and in October (too late). It all depends on the climate and feeding conditions last winter and spring.
Ghosn first occurs in older males, gradually joined them young. Estrus in females continues 4-5 days, in the mountains of estrus begins later than in the plains. At the height of rutting deer running around everywhere.
Male usually rides alone, at least 2-3 females. For one autumn goat can fertilize 5-6 females. However, in the forests of the Kaliningrad region I had to watch as one female chases simultaneously 2.3 goat.
At the end of the rut males retreated to remote places and rest there for a long time.
Like most animals of the deer family, pregnancy lasts about deer in 9 months, but development of the fetus is only in the last 5-6 months. Calving pregnant females go into the thickets and bushes, sometimes even in the depths of the forest, and the calves in the most remote places in the bushes, high grass, reeds, often in inaccessible marshes or along the shores of lakes, usually near water.
Calving occurs from late April to late June, but the majority of females telitsya in May. In the first litter female has a kid, more adults — usually two, rarely three.
The first 4-5 days goats are very weak, barely stand up, and female care about them is on duty then she is moving away for grazing and watering, but not far, kept always on the alert in case of danger takes her.
Kid, a little firmly established, the mother begins to ferment, but goes to the very small distance, when a danger hides, tightly hugging the ground. Since the second half of June goats persistently follow the uterus and are moving to food grass.
By the beginning of estrus mothers goats are already quite independent
Puberty roe comes in the third year.
Deer live up to 15-20 years, although their exact age limit is not set.
The worst enemy of deer — the wolf, especially dangerous in winter. Wolves arrange "ambush" and "pens" on them. No less dangerous and the fox, which bite to death sometimes even adults.
In Siberia, a lot of deer killed by lynx in the forest — from the Wolverines. Dangerous for deer bear. In the Far East, they are haunted by marten. Young deer are killed by large eagles and owls. Deer suffer from many insect pests, especially flies, ticks and various worms.
Roe played a prominent role in hunting. It provides high-quality meat and fat. The skin is used to make suede horns — for small crafts.
Sports Hunting for deer, if it is conducted in an organized, the area, which is animal divorce and to protect, not present much difficulty. In these lands of constant food source in winter animals privazhivayutsya to certain places. Skillfully placed deer feeders are taught to adhere to the same places and contribute to the creation of certain trails (transitions). Given the more sedentary roe, its favorite habitat is conducted, perhaps the most common in the west of hunting from the tower (on the waiting in ambush.)