Coordinates: 64 ° 49'' 50 "s. Lat. 17 ° 59'' 12" h. on Iceland — an island in the North Atlantic Ocean, near the Arctic Circle, between Greenland and Norway. Almost the whole area of the island is a volcanic plateau with peaks of up to 2 km, quite steeply to the ocean. Iceland's total area of 103 km2, of which 11.8 thousand km2. covered by glaciers. Lakes and glaciers occupy 14.3% of the territory, vegetation covered only 23%. The average annual temperature in the south-west coast of +5 ° C, the average temperature in January is -1 ° C, in July +11 ° C. The weather in this country is changing dramatically, sometimes for days. Dark period lasts from mid-November until the end of January. Average annual rainfall is 1300-2000 mm on the south coast, 500-750 mm in the north and more than 3800 mm in the open south slopes. Due to the abundance of precipitation in Iceland quite a lot of big rivers, but they are unnavigable. In Iceland, there are almost all types of volcanoes found on Earth. With volcanic activity are closely related hot springs scattered throughout the country (there are more than 250). Iceland has a coastline length of approx. Five thousand miles. In the north-west, north and east of the rocky shore indented with numerous bays, fjords and islands. On the coastal lowlands and low plateau developed fertile soil at the edges of glaciers often waterlogged. Less than one quarter of the country is covered with vegetation. Extensive internal plateau is almost entirely devoid of vegetation. The vegetation is dominated by moss and grass. Woody plants recently occupied only 1% of the area. This is mostly birch, often with twisted trunks because of strong winds. In recent years, a place created planting conifers. The species composition of the fauna of Iceland poor. During the settlement of the country there was only one species of terrestrial mammals — the fox. In Iceland, the nests are about 80 species of birds. Mountain lakes and rivers inhabited by many swans, ducks and geese, and on the coast are common gulls, terns and other trout in the lakes and in rivers — salmon. In the coastal waters there are two species of seals and some whales.
± 11.1. Orientation to the sun and compass described in Chapter 5.2. A feature of this guide is the difference between the location of the observer in longitude in the same time zone. Such an error in orientation can be up to 1 hour and add to methodological errors are errors of 7-10 ° in longitude location.
— 11.2. When the first signs of frostbite (fever — fever, numbness), immediately take all measures to restore normal body temperature. Assistance in the first step to recovery is reduced blood flow in the damaged tissues by rubbing the damaged sections of a cap, the inside of the glove, a piece of woolen cloth to restore the appearance of redness and pain sensitivity. Used for this purpose is not recommended snow. Frostbitten extremities warm with warm water, preferably with soap and water, accompanied by heating massage. In the formation of blisters on the skin on the frostbitten area sterile dressing is applied. When you see white spots on the face, sharp nose blanching, earlobes, chin, you must perform a quick rubbing of these places to tide them warmed blood.
— 11.3. Duration of human activity in the winter with normal food availability is 10-12 hours a day, 10 hours spent in sleep and rest, 2-4 hours for the resettlement and cooking. To travel in the winter or in the off-season to go early in the morning, when the snow has not started to melt.
+ 11.4. In high snow can easily construct a shelter in the form of snow dens. To do this in the reel snow to dig a hole, put the litter in the form of tree branches, grass, moss and close the entrance aperture snow block or rucksack. Built in deep snow for 20-25 minutes.
+ 11.5. Extraction of water from the snow with jar has been described in chapter 8.8.
— 11.6. When driving on slippery ice surface for the boots can wear socks that will prevent slipping.
— 11.7. In the winter it is better to avoid the obstacles overcome water swimming. If it is impossible to get around this obstacle must be to take care of warming the body on the other side, for this you can try to save the garment dry or use the means at hand with positive buoyancy for the smaller contact area between the cold water to the surface of the body.
± 11.8. To warm the body during the cold period in the volcanic belt, you can use geothermal. However, finding these sources for a long time is dangerous for the body, due to the presence of high content of hydrogen sulfide.
+ 11.9. While traveling in the area of geothermal waters to stand with one foot in front of the surface to probe for the presence of dangerous spaces in which you can fall and hurt his leg.
+ 11.10. As a plant food in the northern latitudes can be used reindeer moss (Figure). Shrub lichen, consisting of highly branched in the form of a shrub branches. When dry, reindeer moss gray-white and fragile, in a wet state is green — or brownish-white and flexible. Lichen that is distributed throughout Europe, it is growing on the ground in moss, large tufts; it reaches its greatest development in the Nordic countries is the main food of deer, and sometimes in lean years and is used by the natives as a substitute for bread.
— 11.11. When cutting the animal can be useful almost all organs. Muscle (meat). The most important and useful part of the animal. Is prepared by any known method. Fat. Has the highest energy value. Used in soups, cooking grease tools, shoes, clothing, fuel for the candle flame, the manufacture of soap and ointments. Liver. Can be eaten raw. When processing is cooked, prepared quickly. Before preparing carefully removed from the middle of the gall bladder, located in the center. You can not eat the liver is not dense texture, the smell, covered with spots or white dots (used as a lure or bait). Stomach. Good boil. Stomach contents (herbivores can be eaten raw or lightly boiled form) is removed, washed and cooked with herbs on low heat. In its raw form can be used as a container for water or food. Kidney. Cook with herbs. Fat surrounding the kidney can be heated and used for frying or preservation of meat. Lungs. Cooked. You can not have light, covered with black and white spots (used as bait or bait). Heart. Lightly boiled and baked, or fried (stew). Eyes. Used to replenish body fluids. Can be consumed raw or stew. Intestine. Turned inside out, washed and thoroughly digested. Used as casings for sausages, ropes and water tank. Thymus and pancreas. Boiled or fried with herbs. Brains. Peel, and brains are boiled for about 90 minutes. Brains can be cooked directly in the skull to simmer half an hour. Eaten as a stew. Preparing jelly and liquid preservative skins. Tail. Skinned and boiled broth. Paws. Thoroughly cleaned and washed, and then stewed, boiled broth.
Head. Language is cooked, peel after cooking. From the head of boiled broth, meat used as food cheeks. The eyes are used as a source of liquid. Bone. Cooked soup finely ground bones. Hooves and horns are used as entrenching tools. Of clavicular bone, split it lengthwise and cut into the sharp edge of the teeth, is a saw. Of leg bones to make knives, arrowheads and mines. The edges of small animals replace awl, needle, pin. For the threads on the end of a hole burnt-ear. Tendon. Hamstring tendon and main limbs washed, dried and can be used as a thread, string, short ropes. Sticky when wet, they shrink when dry and harden. Bladder. Is used as a container for carrying water. Blood. Suitable raw or cooked. When cooking defended until the surface of the transparent liquid. Liquid is discharged, and the residue is dried blood around the fire to form a solid cake. Used to fuel stock, making sausages.
+ 11.12. Cook meat and other animal organs can be in the geothermal source, stringing it on a string or a stick and dipping in boiling water.
+ 11.13. The rocks in the cold season to cross the shallow river better, removing pre-coats and placing it in a waterproof bag, pack, jacket, etc. This is to ensure that on the other side can be quickly put on warm dry clothes.
+ 11.14. You can catch the animals with snares. During installation to: • put on the trails, which can be easily identified on the heels of the animals, feeding areas, watering near the refuge; • Approach the snare set by natural obstacles (bushes, trees, etc.) • trap Take simple in design and can easily mask the terrain; • devices to place in the tightest of places without changing the environment; • use bait (caught animals offal, fish).
+ 11.15. For the night in a rocky area can use the Viking tent, which is built of stones laid around the perimeter of places to stay. The stones are set against each other to a height of 70 cm moss blanketed the floor of the house, and the top is covered with branches, which contains spruce branches and moss.
± 11.16. Fire in a fireplace is used to improve its efficiency. In this case, the stones are placed in a circle to a height of 50 cm From the shelter saves space for the flow of warm air, and the opposite wall acts as a heat reflector.
+ 11.17. Grouse and other small bird is cut without plucking feathers. First removed the head and wings, and then made an incision in the belly all. Next to skin with feathers and gutting.
+ 11.18. Move on the lava fields must be very carefully monitoring the balance of the body in space, not to tuck the ankle. Features such movement described in chapter 5.3.
+ 11.19. Water on the lava fields, you can try to find in the lava tunnels (Section 5.11). To move inside the tunnel, you can use a homemade torch made of cloth soaked with animal fat and wrapped around a stick. The water in the tunnel can flow directly on the walls, this water is filtered and can be consumed fresh.
± 11.20. When driving over rocks to alternately use clamps, stops and orders, preferring to last: the thrust is less danger of disruption and stress on the fingers. Spacers are used where there is no rock face on the projections for grabs and stops, and the location of the rocks can use this method. On hard, but comfortable to go with the thrust areas should move straight up. If you want to move to the side, it should be done on the lighter areas.
± 11.21. Average walking pace across the plain with a solid ground: no cargo -4-5 km / h, with cargo — 3.4 km / h Movement speed is reduced by a strong head wind on 45-50%. Therefore it is better to wait such a wind in the shelter of a rock or in a crevice.
Total: + right decisions — 52% — bad decisions — 24%; ± solutions that require adjustments — 24%.