Sunset | The survival encyclopedia


Over the years, people put up with the fact that any beginning implies the end. However, with the approach of the coming end of humility or leaves it.

Eightieth and eighty-first years were spent in vain and useless trouble of pulling the rope of medium-range missile. Each side was so keen debate that, convincing the enemy, she began to believe in their own arguments.

Consistent in their actions were only military industrialists on both sides of the Atlantic. In the U.S., diligently and successfully produced "Pershing-2", USSR no less successful in the SS-20. After all, politicians and diplomats are so accustomed to the situation, that the "rocket theme" became mandatory delicious aperitif before dinner.

On the background of the "rocket" military confrontation exchange of visits between the Chancellor of Germany and the Secretary-General were the only outlet that left timid hope that induced the hard-bridge between the two countries stand and exertion will not collapse overnight.

Brezhnev understood the importance of a stable relationship between the USSR and West Germany, and in spite of prior myocardial and malaise, each time showed a capacity for meetings, it was worth the speech about the need to go to the Chancellor or himself to go to Germany.

After the visit of Chancellor Helmut Schmidt in Moscow in the summer of 1980, Brezhnev himself spoke about his trip to Germany.

Andropov actively supported the idea. However, because he distrusted the aeronautics, rail and preferred on the basis of health status-Secretary-General, and he wanted to offer the same thing, but then to give this advice for some reason refused.

By that time, became increasingly made itself felt disease, gradually eroding the health of the Andropov. After another trip to the south, where he caught a severe cold, he appeared in the frontal sinuses over the eyebrows weird pus formation, which he was terribly shy.

One day, overcoming his embarrassment, he turned to me with a request to purchase the West for his glasses with the massive frame to hide, he said, "Educated disgrace."

I went around to no avail many opticians, until he found the firm "Rodenshtok" what was needed. The owner is with great pleasure I gave him stale model vesivshuyu he said, nearly three hundred grams, that is, half, more than any contemporary setting.

When I came back to pick up the glasses with lenses inserted already, he could not help asking: who needed such a unique specimen, from which can be deformed nose. Not really looking forward to the stability of the nervous system of a German, I am an honest recognition of the evaded.

Andropov points clearly delighted, and immediately went to his office adjacent to the room where a mirror.

He soon returned extremely pleased, saying that he feels in these glasses, as a diver in the suit, he immediately demanded a bill for the purchase, in order to reimburse me the costs.

Then, putting glasses away, he looked at me for a long time through the glass of the old, apparently thinking something and then said firmly. Tone, which is usually a big secret trust, he said he had recently been called to talk to Brezhnev and bluntly stated that he, Andropov's time to return to the Central Committee of the Party, especially, of course, completing all the cases and appointing a successor. Do not rush, but do not delay — this is what the instructions of the General. Soon fifteen years, as I have in the KGB, Andropov told him, and in fact it was the appointment of at most about three or four years. Brezhnev complained only that the time passes so quickly.

It was seen as worrying Andropov, even recounting a conversation with the General. Ended almost fifteen years, a very important step in his career, he has successfully overcome and out now in the final line, which led to the summit of power.

Brezhnev's proposal was quite specific meaning. It was, above all, the recognition of the undoubted leader Andropov among the country's leadership. Moreover, it meant that the choice of successor Brezhnev made. In the history of the Soviet state was not the case that the outgoing leader in his political testament uniquely specifies the name of his successor.

As it became known after the death of Stalin, Lenin, above human life, including their own, appreciated his creation socialist state in its political will, said only some of the negative qualities of Stalin. But at the same time does not have to he considered worthy to take the matter out of his hands.

Not made in vivo selection and Stalin. Brezhnev was the first who, without naming names, their appointments are concentrated around Andropov so much attention, that his will is no mystery.

Andropov did almost the same. By temperament and because of the short time in office, he did not allow myself to point the finger of Mikhail Gorbachev, but he did almost all the necessary steps to ensure that after his death he was elected General Secretary of the CPSU Central Committee.

Going back to that memorable conversation with Andropov, informed me of his move, I must say that this is not over.

He suddenly wondered how I imagine my future life, adding that his departure to stay me, a mere formality, as part of national security agencies do not have any reason to. He explained why: my way of life and working conditions — day at home, two days in Germany — has created within the agency a lot of envious detractors, but they really care Andropov will show up quite clearly. And therefore, concluded Andropov, the best I would have to change jobs.

Neither understanding nor any enthusiasm I have this monologue boss did not call, and this was triggered by its noticeable discontent and irritation.

We soon parted.

Master endgame Andropov certainly was not, and could not stand for him unpleasant explanations to people.

It I realized at a time when he asked me to talk with N. Then I thought, what happened is a need, an unpleasant conversation with me, he too will charge someone the third.

In comparison with N., I got even more sad fate: the relationship with me Andropov ordered to settle his deputies, who, naturally, were abhorrent among themselves.

Each of them carries out assignments according to their understanding, one explained that the continuous, for more than ten years, communication with the alien, hostile foreign environment could not exhaust the defenses of our "political immunity" and therefore needs a long break, during which "channel" will be "submitted to the operation," the other, more ideologically convinced people.

Others believe that a long stay abroad greatly increases our chances of being kidnapped one of the enemy's intelligence, but then, so, under interrogation …

Besides becoming very likely to buy in the neighborhood of Moscow dacha, a size larger than that assumed by someone's imagination, Lednev and I could only pre-sell home.

Third, the wisest and oldest of the deputies, expressed in the sense that we as a people are writing, at any time we can break out of publications, which will reveal the secrets entrusted to us by the chief.

After reading the opinion of all three, I decided that I need to listen to and the fourth — the Andropov.

It was clear that it will have to use all the lessons he taught me. Cautious at every step, he often repeated phrase that he had heard from the Volga boatswain in his youth and became his credo: "Life, Jura — it wet deck. And in order for it not to slip, move around slowly. And be sure that every time you place to put your foot! "

You had no fuss to calculate when and where to put your foot, but the time for this simple maneuver remained extremely low.

Now the boss took me less frequently and severely limiting our meeting time. And soon we Valery again realized that we were carefully "look after", this time in East Berlin.

Valery has long maintained good relations with the West German television journalist Fritz Plyaytgenom long worked in Moscow. At the time of my story that has moved to East Berlin and reported from there countrymen that occurs in the GDR. Valery loved to visit when an occasion presented, this welcoming and friendly family.

Driving up to the house where he lived Plyaytgen on Lyayptsigershtras-se to pick Ledneva, I each time more and more amazed at how quickly the crowd thickens "spies" it is this house. Besides, more and more all the way from Lyayptsigersht Russ Karlshorst to the suburbs, where we lived, we were accompanied by a car. The meaning of this "escort" and is still a mystery.

At first we wanted to repeat itself justified method: fix number of cars and people, we relentlessly pursue. But soon realized that this time will be no one to deliver the paper. Whoever these people were, Andropov's response in this case would be clear: anger and suspicion about us exhibited nervousness. And because there was one: to pretend that we do not notice.

Thinking through the inevitable explanation Andropov, I decided to follow his own formula: patient benefit.

You might also have had time to prepare for the upcoming Ledneva eventuality.

Simplifying the task itself, I gave it all I had heard from the Vice Andropov. As for the German cases, that Valery was programmed to order, praise, or at least the tacit recognition of merit on both sides, but certainly not the suspicion of infidelity, the more the state, which he so faithfully served. Everything that happened, he took it as a personal affront, as a result of low-grade intrigues incompetent apparatchiks, in what was far from the truth.

I waited until he calms down, and gave him my word, whatever happens, I find the opportunity to talk with Andropov.

Strengthened me in this decision and another event. One day, sitting in his office, I picked up the ringing phone and heard a voice with a strong foreign accent:

— I've got to talk to you! This evening, between seven and eight o'clock, I'll ventilate your head on the embankment of the Moscow River, the hotel "Ukraine". I think, and your brain does not prevent a walk ..

Call this pleased me. According to Heinz Lata I felt a certain sense of guilt: we have not seen, and they knew each other only by Ledneva which a caller longstanding and warm friendship.

That evening, I really found Heinz at the appointed place on the waterfront. Leaning on the railing, he looked blankly down at the footy, entirely in black oil fatty blob of water of the Moskva River.

Barely said hello, he, as usual, right to the point.

— We have a relationship with you, of course, not the same as with Valery. In my opinion, you do not trust me …

I wanted to protest, but he held up his hand, motioning anticipating all my arguments:

— Now it does not matter. Valery told me what happened to you, and from that moment I did not find a place, do not sleep and do not eat! .. Ten years ago, I was able to let a little, help our cause. For ten years I was happy, seeing that things are moving.

He paused, looking at the dark walls of the factory "Three-mountain factory" on the opposite bank.

— Listen, you can not give a good thing to be eaten by the foolish and careerists.

He walked over to the car, took the seat envelope and handed it to me.

— Here, read, translated into Russian and sent to a destination. I know you can. Maybe it's the best thing I've written for all of his many years of journalism.

At the top of neat handwriting was written: "Mr. Secretary General Leonid Brezhnev" …

I paused a moment, smiled and Heinz:

— Do not worry, you're the first one to read it. I have a book in thick cover, in it, I kept the letter.

Up to this day I can not forgive myself for two things, when you look back into the past that did not remember Andropov poems written for the GN, and I did not take the letter Lata. I now have many sacrificed in order to re-read the last cry of the soul of this amazing man. I hope that Eric — the widow Heinz keeps its records this stunning candor document. If memory serves, began a three-page letter that.

"Dear Mr. Secretary General,

You are drawn former German prisoner of war. Wehrmacht soldiers as I fought against the Russian people, he was captured and sent to a POW camp. But it was there, where living conditions close to the critical, I love your people. Russian people have not fallen to the primitive site, although they had to base. In contrast, they rose to the great moral height, keeping us alive and subjected humiliation. I can assure you, Mr. Secretary-General, so I think that not only I, but nine out of ten of the former prisoners of war "…

Then briefly outline the history of Heinz started ten years ago rapprochement between the USSR and Germany. Mentioned in this respect and we Lednev. Ended with a message asking:

"You were up front and know what life and death. Do not let the death of what has been produced so hard and so should you and my people, reconciliation. "

Heinz was not aware of our palace intrigue and certainly could not imagine that if I had, even using its capabilities, handed him a letter directly into the hands of Brezhnev, still in the end it would be very soon migrated to Andropov and undoubtedly , only worsen our situation.

I had great difficulty to persuade Heinz to take the letter back, return it to the hiding place and wait a little while I'll take care of himself in the situation.

He agreed, taking my word that as soon as possible, I still give a letter to the addressee.

We're a little more stood at the parapet, and then, instead of goodbye, suddenly embraced. This impulsive gesture foreign to me as much as it was unnatural and restrained Heinz. Against the background of this surge of genuine sincerity, the events that unfolded around us seemed to me fuss scorpions in a bottle, feeding on each other, despite the absence of hunger and appetite.

Returning to her, I called the Secretariat Andropov and got the expected answer: he is too busy.

After learning that one of the Vice Chief is not there, I passed the reception and politely greeted the secretary, and went into the office, picked up a direct connection with the chief.

Growing up behind me and embarrassed Secretary of surprise as he realized who I'm talking, hastily withdrew, closing the door. Hearing the voice of Andropov, I said that I wanted to speak to him urgently. After a moment's hesitation, he offered to come to him immediately.

When he saw me entering the reception, the secretary shook his head.

Further events unfolded quickly. Wasting no time, I set out to Andropov content of all conversations that had me his deputies. He winced displeasure:

— And this is how to do could not! — He did not spare his deputies. — Well, then, listen to me carefully. I told you that I was going to the CC. Take with you, as we have it made, the whole team, including drivers and cooks, not going.

He further outlined the concept that tried hard to hide it from me, the next slave. It was reduced to the following:

Development of our relations with Germany when using the direct channel between the leaders of the two countries took place in front of our German friends have not caused them nothing but distrust and irritation, including in relation to us with Lednev. My conversations with Mielke situation has not improved. We have become "eyesores" in our relations with our German friends, that can not take place in the future.

I typed in light air to lay out the case against these arguments, but it is a gesture preempted me and continued:

— You're not stupid, and should understand that for all of your achievements, no one because of you with the leadership of the GDR would not quarrel.

— Do you mean with Honecker?

— Including.

It became obvious that there have been systematic, primarily from East Berlin, the information which Andropov occasionally introduced me, that in and Ledneva Kevorkova through prolonged contact with West Germans there was a displacement of political sympathies from the East to the West, yet had its impact.

— Well, now everything falls into place — I said, causing stress on the face of Andropov's gone and I thought he was even cheered and immediately asked me to point to any place where I would like to work, and even promised to take care of the rest myself.

I prefer Telegraph Agency of the Soviet Union, but was quick to note that before I need to meet for the last time by Egon Bar, explain to him what happened, and, in any case, thank you for the many collaborative efforts and to say goodbye.

Andropov did not mind.

— You made the right decision — handed his hand in farewell. — You write for a long time, and now you can and publish under his own name.

— "The Inevitable accept with dignity."

He held my hand, as if demanding clarification. But the explanation for the fact that this saying is not mine, but the ancient philosophers did not catch him by surprise.

— I thought so, but still fine. I'll have to remember. — And he once again pleased to repeat it.

It was our last meeting.

A few days before departure, we Valery learned that we will "accompany". I saw him for the first time and, as expected, he was to become the successor of the "channel." But this man is so relentlessly took care of us in a way, especially when we crossed the border, we really wanted to at least someone to ask for political asylum.

It was a fantasy, but really we were convinced that the well-mannered, to afford the "lead" in the last meeting with Egon Bar anyone without notifying it in advance.

Dining in the restaurant near the West Berlin "Oyropa center", Valery went to the bathroom and on the way came across the telephone. Without hesitation, he immediately dialed Bar and outlined to him the purpose of our visit.

Perhaps that is why Bar has expressed much surprise, when his hotel room "Shvaytserhof" we turned three, but said dryly from the doorway, in the presence of extraneous conduct any business calls will not. All surveys on the use of the "channel" between Brezhnev and Chancellor Schmidt, he is authorized to discuss, only obtained the sanction of the latter.

Finished with a situation that we he unwittingly imposed. Bar invited me for a walk. It was a long walk, talk, sad, but, as always, honest. We clearly understand that coming to an end an important period in the life of each of us, so to sum up, vying remembering moments, most clearly imprinted memory.

The result was as simple as it is surprising: in the ten or so years, we never cheated each other, and it is given the number and value of the "gotchas" that constantly had to crawl.

We parted.

Bar returned to Bonn, and I — in Moscow, where he got an office at TASS, as never regretted.

Different cases Egon Bahr still sometimes comes to Moscow, and while burning so we have diminished, we met every time with real pleasure, though the shadow of uncertainty evolution occurred not left us and was the subject of many meetings.

We experienced a sharper situation Valery. He, every day, I demanded explanations for what happened. Cheerful and carefree by nature, he fell into a prolonged and severe depression. Never being a passionate advocate of sobriety, he was looking now at fault outlet.

One day, sitting in the country at a desk, I realized the creaking steps that someone coming up the stairs. Without calling and knocking appeared Valery. He sat down and asked for vodka. I obeyed, but Valery demanded that I poured for himself. I obeyed. He then asked me to stand up. I stood up. And then he said:

— Today, committed suicide a talented journalist, a sincere friend of Russia, the German Heinz Lata.

He jumped from the balcony of his apartment and died on the ground, which was very fond. Keep it down to him.

Say, to die on the day of his birth, means to complete their life cycle. Brezhnev was stopped short by December 1982. He died easily, suddenly, no one is not torturing and leaving no will — political or personnel.

Yet he could quite clearly define the shape of his successor. November 12, 1982 extraordinary Plenum elected Secretary General Yuri Andropov.

Andropov came to this hour long cherished, being able to wait and skillfully managed not to slip on the "deck of life." This "big time" consisted of many "star minutes."

November 15 Andropov received in the Kremlin the former director of the CIA, then Vice-President of the United States, George W. Bush, who arrived at the funeral of Leonid Brezhnev.

Bush flew in from overseas to say is that we had to say and all the rest. What are you thinking at that moment of mourning deputypresident U.S., hard to say, but 15-year-old experience with Andropov makes it quite accurately reproduce his thoughts at this meeting.

"Today, my, has become not by my will, sinful past becomes present and sinless in chaste future. From now on, no me, no you no one would dare to throw a stone at him. We both got out of range of a possible relationship disrespectful to us, however, you are in rank only vice-president, and I have become a full head of the most powerful nation in the world. "


I was, at that time wholly absorbed in work TASS. She was not new for me, but it was much more fun than I expected.

And most importantly, it required a lot of time, and time is quickly swept up in oblivion all the past, especially the unpleasant part.

July 5, 1983 I had stayed late in the office. Considering I experienced Germanist, CEO asked to see the tape manufactured information on a Kremlin meeting with Andropov, who arrived in Moscow German Chancellor Helmut Kohl and Foreign Minister G.D.Gensherom.

I put on the table the material sent from the Central Committee for the release of the press. Upon reading it I was overcome by sadness.

Over the six months that Andropov remained in power, nothing, including the vocabulary of political rhetoric, the better not changed. Prior to the deployment of U.S. missiles in Europe were only a few months. The newspapers have already flashed messages that they are shipped to the court and ready to sail on the European continent.

Andropov also talking to Helmut Kohl, a studied have not repeated topical and hopeless from the start Gromyko's phrase: "If the missiles will be placed, then …"

Sent me a document was endorsed by the Assistant Secretary-Agentovym Alexandrov, but through the line grimly smiling, as always, on the side of the sloping face Gromyko, the Roman senator repeat what was said two thousand years before his catch phrase: «Et Karthaginem delendam esse!» («A Carthage must be destroyed! ")

I remembered Andropov spell of four years ago, spoken on the same occasion to the same Gromyko. The head of the state security agencies, pointing to the text of Gromyko's speech proved to me that diplomacy can not be built on ultimatums. And now, becoming head of state, he went through this unpromising.

For those who still doubt the possibility of transmission of impulses of the brain at a distance, that is, in telepathy, undertake to dissuade, but I do it reluctantly.

Signing up with a heavy heart the paper, I gave it to release the tape. Naturally, at the time I was full sure: if I, as before, close to Andropov, I could affect the way that had once perfect stupidity is not repeated. Giving myself not to take to heart in the future everything about Germany, I got dressed and headed for the exit.

At the door, I heard the phone ringing Kremlin. Back — a bad omen. But I have overcome superstition and was rewarded for it.

It was hard to believe, but came out of the tube-podhri povaty very tired voice Andropov. Do not submit as soon greeting, he spoke as if interrupted for half an hour ago, for some reason the dialogue.

— Today I received the Chancellor Kohl. I liked it very much: energetic, a real "German bull," from the people. But — is smart, he knows what power is, and knows how to use it. And this is, on what most leaders stumble.

Afford to talk on the phone without having presented, could only very senior executive, convinced that everyone else should already recognize the timbre of his voice. Earlier Andropov currently not allowed.

— Tell me, — he continued — what do you think is capable of Kohl discard all conventions and continue a dialogue with us, started Brandt?

— For the case … — I started to say, but he did not let me finish that before he, too, was not typical.

— I have to have a medical examination in the next few weeks, and then get some rest. That's when I come back, we'll continue this conversation with you.

I wished him a speedy recovery, while experiencing a deep sympathy with him, as well, presented a situation in which he would spend the whole time. Previously, I had the opportunity several times to visit him in the hospital, and each time I was surprised primitive and bad taste of his environment, in which, it seemed to me, it was sick, but not cured.

Two in his room separate from the main buildings was a stone house Kuntsevsky Hospital is a mixture of his office, hospital room i / i room "luxury" in a privileged sanatorium CC. The same as in the private office, carpets and phones "ivory" with an insinuating, sparing nervous system phone call.

In the small front room that serves the living room, decorated with gaudy furniture Egyptian production. Apparently, some of responsible officials of the Ministry of Foreign Trade in the sixties they came quite to your taste, and since then, the whole country was captivated by it in exchange for a huge amount of crude oil, previously evacuated from its interior.

In general, the abode was as modest as it is depressing.

Plated bed on wheels, faded wooden flowers, glued into veneer bedside table, all he could see in the last moments of life. "Survey", which he spoke by telephone and lasted until his death.

Be that as it may, the voice of Andropov in the evening I heard the last time.

But not quite. One day, at a time when he was seriously ill, I had to talk to him indirectly.

My old friend in Moscow for many years maintained a friendly relationship with one of the directors of the American concern "Occidental Petroleum" Armand Hammer. The American of Russian origin, has an unconditional gift of "grooming" of Soviet leaders — from Lenin to Gorbachev, including, of course, Brezhnev. Quirky Armand Hammer for sixty years he knew what was happening on the Soviet "top".

Soon after coming to power, Andropov, he got wind that he is in a hopeless state because of incurable kidney disease. Hammer immediately brought to the attention of my friend, that he was ready to put the United States needed to Andropov machine, a sort of "artificial kidney." I managed to submit the proposal to the American hospital.

The answer came in the form of a phone call. Unfamiliar male voice read me text, apparently written or dictated already decrepit Andropov. He gave thanks for the attention and assured that all necessary now available to physicians. From this "now" can be concluded that any difficulties with the acquisition of the equipment still were.

February 9, 1984 Andropov died.

I was told that shortly before his death, he just asked the doctor how many days assigned to it. After hearing the answer, with temporarily, as a true statesman, courageously, in line with the so-he liked the philosophical maxim: "The inevitable accept with dignity."

Andropov was certainly the last statesman who believed in the viability of the Soviet system. And, believe it is not in the system they inherited when they came to power, and the one that wanted to create through drastic reforms.


In November 1986, in Moscow, in the building of the Peace Committee held meetings Bergersdorfskogo discussion club. To participate in profits former chancellor

Helmut Schmidt and former minister in the government of Willy Brandt, Egon Bahr.

November's chilly in the morning I got a call Lednev and said that Helmut Schmidt expressed his desire to meet him. I was delighted, and the message itself, and the cheerful voice of Valeria, since all the last time he was in a depressed state. Needless to say, for us it was a nice surprise.

I am blessed to Valeria to this meeting, and we agreed that I would wait impatiently for his return in his office.

Valery went to a meeting with the Chancellor in the same suit, in which he visited for the first time. Skilled barber, so fine tune it to philosophical mood before the first meeting, was not in Moscow, but there was still a good man, who not only brought his head in the proper order, but gave it sufficiently concentrated barbershop smell.

Have long to wait for the return, but before there was Valery, telephoned Bar. He informed them that the meeting was very warm, but Schmidt is concerned his depressed mental and poor physical condition. Both of them believe that they need urgent support and assistance. They are willing to provide in any form or both.

Soon he came in and Valery. His eyes were giggling and having fun, as always, gleaming behind thick glasses. He sat down, satisfied, in the chair, and spoke in detail about the just concluded a meeting with Helmut Schmidt and Egon Bahr. Particularly touched him was that Vice-Chancellor was interested in his personal problems. It was clear that this talk to him, has lost faith in himself and in justice, and was a real balm.

Lounging in his chair and crossed his legs, he again and again recounted the details talk, afraid to miss the slightest detail. He was literally bursting with pride.

Suddenly he just suddenly stopped, and then covered his face with his hands, wept bitterly.

I did not disturb him. Everyone gets rid of the stress in their own way.

Finally, Valery took his hands and looking straight at me and asked:

— Can you explain why the German chancellor took the time to see me and ask about the state of my mind and health, and to say with the good word? Why do people who speak a foreign language, more understanding and sympathy than those who speak to us in Russian? Where was the famous "Russian soul"!. Believe me, if it were not for a son, I would have found the strength for a long time to leave this life …

It was the last minor note in that day.

After meeting with former Chancellor Valeria was difficult to recognize. He stood like a soul in his eyes there were sparks of life, not to leave him back ever vitality.

Remaining time of death Lednev lived without a shadow depressed and died easily, overnight.

Sure, these days life gave him G.Shmidt.

April 4, 1982, right in the editor's office, Valeria overtook stroke. He lost consciousness, but it soon returned. Lying on a stretcher arrived "first aid", he managed to joke that "from the blow, and you can die."

Unfortunately, the prediction came true. April 7 Valery Lednev died.

The obituary placed in his newspaper "Soviet Culture", and during the funeral of his many friends was repeated many times that he was far more important to hear live.

Thirtieth day of May in Moscow came Egon Bahr. He asked me to take away his grave at Valeria.

On fresh, not yet formalized his great mound stood a photograph. With him Valery looked at us, stay here to live out his age, without any jealousy.

Get down on the grave of cloves. Bar said:

— Without it, Moscow was empty.

There and then, without saying a word, he took out a piece of paper and, looking at the portrait of Valery, rapid hand wrote a letter to his son, Sergei.

"Dear Sergey!

We saw each other only once, but I feel I have to tell you how deeply moved by the death of your father. He often talked about you, he loved you, and if he gave his powers to save the world without war, he did it, and thinking about his son. To me, he for many years was a reliable friend. Moscow Treaty of 1970 and the Quadripartite Agreement on Berlin, the cornerstones of the policy of detente and cooperation in order to establish friendly relations between your country and mine — and provide an unforgettable contribution. Thanks to him, I learned to understand the heart of your country. Your father and you can be proud. I am still full of memories and a desire to help you as I can. Give my condolences to your mom.

Egon Bahr. "

Gone from the life of two people — Heinz Lata and Valery Lednev. Each of them carried out before the end of their duty to their country and to their children. They did everything in their power to speak a different language, people have learned to understand each other, and the world was kinder.

Neither orders nor glory, nor even the good things in his address during the life they never came. Perhaps the reader's attention to what was said would be a reward for their noble efforts.

Reflections after write

In the early morning August 31, 1994 the sky over Berlin was almost cloudless. Sun his nonthermal, but still bright slanting rays shone carefully washed, paved with stone slabs Gendarmenmarkt square in the city center. It was such a dream to see this morning, organizers of the celebration of the departure of the last Russian soldier from German soil.

Area cordoned off tight cordon of police, special guests and journalists. The square is hanging solemn silence — people have realized the importance of the moment. Russian and German military bands march rebuilt. Russian, strictly following the Prussian tradition, hold and pull the leg alignment to a prescribed height. The Germans, by contrast, are casually waddle, stressing that "goose step" to them already otmarshirovali their Prussian ancestors, find fame not the greatest peacemakers.

Clock in the tower struck nine pm, and almost immediately the area have impressive figures of Russian President Boris Yeltsin and German Chancellor Helmut Kohl.

Standing next to me a newspaper reporter svezheraspavshegosya Eastern bloc aloud noticed that Helmut Kohl, now seems "monumental normal." I do not think so, although, to be sure, the chancellor is for this reason. Today he completes the enormous project — historical canvas, the work of his predecessors — from Konrad Adenauer and Willy Brandt to Helmut Schmidt — let each according to his talent, but always with the belief in success.

However, the latest "smear maestro" which and give a monumental canvas required for entry into the story shine, destined to do it, Helmut Kohl.

The picture is full of events and their participants. There are also beautiful landscapes. Picturesque scenery of the North Caucasus. Stormy River, more rapidly than down in history Rubicon, cut off the retreat of the transferred him to Julius Caesar.

On the bank of the river near the village of Arkhyz two: the sixth post-war German Chancellor Helmut Kohl to the first and last Soviet president Mikhail Gorbachev. They have retired here to far away from the city noise and prying eyes finally solve the German problem. They do not need to cross the river. The President has crossed the Rubicon before, in Moscow, in the mansion of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs on the street named after Leo Tolstoy. There chancellor gave the president privately "Greater agreement" on the conditions of reunification, which was immediately approved.

Of course, it is logical to put in the same historical point. But someone remembered in time: it is a Moscow Treaty was signed twenty years ago, Brandt Brezhnev and that was the beginning of rapprochement between the USSR and Germany. Second Moscow treaty would be an unnecessary repetition. New people designated course of historical events to complete this process, and had to choose a new situation. Soviet President came to the idea to immortalize the place where he first saw the light …

Chancellor focused person, president stressful.

To each taking a historic decision, no doubt less than certainty. One of the secretaries of the Central Committee of the CPSU, wondering at the fact that he was not invited to the meeting of the Caucasus, he decided to call Gorbachev in Arkhyz. With obvious relief in his voice the President told him that he had already discussed what is happening does not make sense, because "the train has left." In what direction, he did not elaborate.

However, if you stand on the shore Arkhyz Soviet president was nowhere to retreat, then standing next chancellor retreat was no need. He knew that a slave named train is moving to the west, in the direction already reunified Germany. From now on, his name will forever be synonymous with not only the most important solutions to the historical problems of his country, but also a symbol of the answer to a difficult philosophical question, any man has a greater effect on the personality of the story-or vice versa. Helmut Kohl decided it in favor of the individual.

"Six" — the political-sense told him when to take the plunge: the day before it was too early, the day after tomorrow will be too late. Therefore Kohl arrived in Moscow July 15, 1990.

Life has confirmed the correctness of the calculation. Earlier, Gorbachev was not willing to sign such an agreement. Later, he would not have allowed it to make the circumstances.

So, Chancellor Kohl managed to do that in German history before it was able to make only Chancellor Otto von Bismarck, nicknamed "Iron", and it does not miss the chance, what is, in fact, is the art of politics.

Immediately after the Franco-Prussian War of 1870 — 1871 years, Bismarck hastened to combine 39 separate German states during the Second Empire of the German nation, or Second Reich, as they have to say. For that he delivered a record number of monuments in the country.

So, now for the second time Germany was able to solve the basic problem of national and state — to unite the nation and the state.

In Russia, this experience, for that matter, and the experience of the whole of Europe, was seen "by contradiction." At a time when Western Europeans realize that the hard times easier to survive together in the former Soviet Union, raised the slogan, "alone survive easier." The result — a multiethnic power suddenly collapsed.

Russian history has always been a very personalized. Therefore, people rushed to look for both perpetrators and rescuers. Analyzing the past is still alive, they unwittingly returned to the "question of the role of personality in history." Surfaced once again in memory heavy Stalin, whispering that if Lenin had lived longer, and Stalin came to power later, the life of the Soviet people would have turned out quite differently …

This language imposed on the day yesterday, and since there will be freedom of speech, they began to think aloud and in writing to the effect that if Brezhnev had died earlier, and Andropov lived longer …

To blame for this, far from the Christian, the question is not the people, and history. She has long led Andropov to power, creating a halo around a leader, capable of transforming the state system existed and thus stop its degradation.

But in that moment, when he was the head of state, the history changed her mind, deprived of his life, and those who believe in Him, — hopes that Russia can be reformed, not throwing it into chaos.

Involuntarily the question arises: could Andropov did anything really change, given the current at the time of his coming to power, the situation has what it takes for this strong-willed and intellectual ability, or situation in the country could not be saved?

Today, though rarely, but still there are voices of his former subordinates in the department of public safety. They are trying to destroy the existing image of a statesman with a high IQ.

It seems that there is often implicitly affects sitting in their resentment for the fact that by moving to the post of head of department of the party elite, Andropov wanted to be among them only physically, «in corpore", leaving the soul in politics, and therefore could not appreciate the professional quality of their subordinates.

As for Andropov as a person, he certainly was able to influence the course of history.

Based on the image of his thought and expression, you can somewhat imagine his reaction to the events in the country.

As a person who is convinced of the viability of the socialist system, he would do the possible and impossible efforts to prevent the collapse of the Soviet Union. And then he would "pay the price stood for."

As a man of extremely meticulous in all that concerned the rule of law, he would not put up with rampant corruption and crime. Andropov was convinced that the Russian embezzlement inherited from the tsarist regime and represents a grave danger to the state.

In the last years of his stay at the head of national security, he has started to deploy subordinate Monsters of mounting chaos.

"Spies working against us, can rest a bit. Them harm less than from internal corruption. "

He believed that the liberalization of the country should be carried out step by step, every step of making the necessary adjustments. And certainly from the top, under the strict control of the state. He intended to act decisively enough, based on the four forces: the party apparatus, the army, the security services and support to the intelligentsia. He considered it necessary at all costs to persuade her to his side.

From reading arouses the question of why such a noble cause, as the establishment of relations between the states in the 70-80's took not quite respectable department of the KGB.

There is certain historical logic. Already in the first years of the Brezhnev came to the conclusion that he has to deal with is not a very stable situation in the country in which the security services, due to their specificity, remains one of the few agencies minimally corrosive.

On this basis. The Secretary General Andropov address the most pressing problems. Reluctantly teeth, he had to deal with things, sometimes quite alien to his office, from the grounding of fighting with corruption to heavenly things — to understand the cause of accidents on ships in space.

With the ability to be found in the negative positive. Believing himself entrusted to him in the universality of the device, Brezhnev, Andropov easily convinced that in the area of foreign policy, it may be more effective than conservative Gromyko. The positive experience of communicating confidence in the 70-80s the Soviet leadership and the West was the best proof of the correctness of the chosen path.

After the meeting, July 5, 1983 with German Chancellor Helmut Kohl, Andropov wanted to re-engage with well-adjusted Brandt and Schmidt's system of direct contact with the newly elected chancellor. Apparently, the chancellor and he was not about to give up the experience of predecessors.

The appearance on the scene Gorbachev Chancellor, without wasting time, would establish a trust relationship, which allowed a favorable moment to quickly solve the main problem posed to him time — to recreate the powerful German state.

It should be noted that after the initial success in improving relations with Germany Andropov tried to take some steps of this kind and for the U.S., finding that it was time to lead an honest dialogue with the Americans, "directly and without witnesses."

Unfortunately, the calculation was not justified.

In addition to several confidential interviews conducted with U.S. congressmen and senators, the case has not moved forward.

Blocked the road safely at least three people: Henry Kissinger, who did not want to rise above the suspicion and prejudice that prevailed at that time in the relationship between the two countries, Zbigniew Brzezinski, who did not let the blood of the Polish intelligence capabilities to transcend hatred of the Soviet Union, even in the name of noble the idea of peace, and the Soviet ambassador to the U.S., Anatoly Dobrynin, who solved their problems through its special relationship with Kissinger and Brezhnev.

Little understood in the past, is in the end a little touch of the future, for they are inseparable, try to let in the most general terms, imagine what the world should expect from Russia.

Thus, Russia's past obviously, the future is uncertain.

What can she expect from him, and can hope the world? Will her prolonged illness caused by the collapse of the state, continue, or she has already suffered a enough to develop immunity, sufficient to stand before the world again completely healthy.

The first German chancellor Otto von Bismarck said: "It is not in our interest to power in Russia was shaken for a long time and seriously … No emotion, and political calculation dictates that a strong Russia will bring us great benefits. "

Weak Klochkova Russia did not need to Bismarck. Do not need it and united Europe, or even modern America, though the latter still does not want to admit it.

A quarter of a century ago was easy to predict that both Germany united. Today not have to be a visionary to see Russia in the future as a single, and recommend to all on the basis of this build a relationship with her. Centrifugal force is exhausted, people realized that the more difficult to live alone. What Russia was, it never will be. But that, in what has become, will not.

Germany was reunited in a well-defined national-historical framework. The contours and the unit of Russia's future is less clear. There is no doubt, however, that this was a powerful state that can return respect.

It is widely known that the individual stories were created by the state, and almost completely disappeared by those at whom the state of the system collapsed.

The name of Julius Caesar, is going to land in the glory and power of Rome, known to elementary school students.

The names of the sons of Emperor Theodosius I, in which the Roman empire finally broke into two parts, known only to people interested in history.

We very much brought up on ideas of classical German philosophy, and therefore the perception of German philosophical thought for the Russian organically. It would therefore be surprising if the that when will the voluntary unification of the multinational Russian state, someone will repeat the prophetic words of the great German Willy Brandt, spoken to them at the time of German reunification: "The newly fused what has always been one."

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