In the best way to go at dawn. Easier to walk in the morning, the body is less tired. In hot weather, most of the way will be passed to the morning chill. In winter or in the offseason should also go early, when the snow has not started to melt, less avalanche danger.
If there is a team leader determines the rate of movement, focusing on the weakest. It is desirable that the weakest was second and closing — one of the physically strong people. Its main task — to make sure that no one was lost, to help those lagging behind, to warn of the danger.
One chain to move into the thick forest, the swamp, the ford, with the potential for rockfalls slopes. It is advisable for everyone to have a permanent place in the line, then tourists will notice immediately if one of their neighbors is missing.
The distance between the tourists on the trail, the road is usually about 2 meters closer walk not: come across a friend, when he suddenly stopped, you will not see a pit or stone front, neighborhood — all Countryside backpack face.
On the roads going to meet transport to see him in the distance, that is, on the left side of the road, in a column by one. Where cars drive rarely allowed to go without fail.
Highway with heavy traffic moving at a location remote from the next turn is not less than 100 m, and in single file. The group stays on the sidelines and will not close when the machines on command: "Go" — all together, line up move to the other side.
At walking pace put the whole foot (not the shoe and welts on the toe), selecting possible level surface that can fit the entire sole. After some bumps, logs, rocks, try to step, not getting to them.
On solid ground put a sock on the ground, and then slowly lower the heel. On soft ground opposite: lower the heel first, and then calmly walked the whole foot (Fig. 4).
Fig. 4. How to Go
Walk on the grass, both on hard ground. Lift with the leg above the grass, otherwise it will whisper.
Walk slowly through the water, without pulling lowered into the water body, moving head, so as not to splash water.
(46) Well someone keep a written timing — when we got up in the morning, went to the route, passed a landmark or obstacle much time spent on it, how many stopped to rest and moved on. This will determine the distance and then, in his time than the group (usually on long halts fees or tightened). Timing, as well as a diary with a brief description of the way is invaluable later when you need to talk about the campaign or to make a report.
Traffic density and the associated costs of energy to determine the pace of movement. The table shows the rate of four movements — slow, normal, fast, and forced. This data can take the team leader in order to choose the right pace of movement and bring the group to the desired goal. The figures in the table are given for road or on trails suitable for slope movement on the flat surface of glaciers and firn fields at an altitude of 4000 m and at a normal weight of backpacks. Deterioration of ways, excessive weight burden, moving at high altitudes, as well as insufficient acclimatization sharply reduce the rate of movement.
km / h
and descend vertically,
m / h
movement and rest,
At the beginning of the campaign, with severe fatigue, and when the group is sick.
In the normal state of the group.
At its best the group, if necessary, to gain time on the slopes.
to 8 and more
600 and more
Rest for 5 — 10 minutes, if necessary
In short segments where speed is required for safety reasons, with a possible violation of a specified period, with the rescue work.
To calculate the rate of movement, you can use the following formula: a person goes through in 1 hour as miles, how much do the steps in 3 seconds (with a step width of 0.83 cm).
At 2 500-3 500 m above sea level, the speed of movement is reduced by about 25-30%, at an altitude above 3,500 meters — by 50-60%.
At the speed of the thaw is reduced by 50%.
When driving on a meadow with thorns and soil with a thick cover of grass — by 25%, in the rain and snow storm — by 10-15%, and with a strong headwind — by 50%.
Passing through the thicket, you should hold the branches that they are not whipped in the face going back. Move les sous should chain with an interval of 3-4 m the first voice to warn about dangerous places: well, sticking the stump, root, slippery place, hidden ravines, and so go on a route without trails should slowly and carefully, choosing the most secure place. At this rate, the tourist, running into an obstacle, will be less likely to fall and be injured. When driving on an azimuth recommended to view the path as far as possible, not to be impassable thicket, surrounded by rubble, heavily overgrown, deep ravine, gully or swamps, etc.