50 years All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Hunting and farming Centrosoyuz. For achievements VNIIOZ awarded the Diploma of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR.
During the half-century work of the institute focused on the implementation of Lenin's plan for the economic use of natural resources for economic development. From the first days of work of the Institute is closely linked to the practice of socialist construction. It has contributed to strengthening and expanding the resource base for hunting, a significant increase in harvesting and export of furs, fur farming and the establishment of a domestic industry mehoobrabatyvayuschey.
The main areas of research that are conducted without interruption for 50 years, were identified founder and first director of the institute, an eminent scientist, Prof. Boris Mikhailovich Zhitkov.
VNIIOZ story comes from Central ohotpromyslovoy biological station, established in 1922 at the department of wild animals and birds Timiryazev Agricultural Academy. A talented organizer, BM Zhitkov attracted for research into the new branch of biology that time-hunting-group talent, such as AN Formozov NP Naumov, AF Chirkova, B. Kuznetsov , N. Lavrov, NK Vereshchagin, BF Tservvitinov, VG Stahrovsky and others who later became prominent scientists.
As a result, research on the biological cycle of hunting fishing fauna identified resources in the whole country and the major geographical regions, studied the species composition of animals and birds, their placement on the basic types of habitats, to quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the formation and general faunal complexes having ohothozyaystvennoe value .
Institute explores the status of stocks, biology, and natural habitat of key species of fur-bearing animals, rabbits, squirrels, ermine, column, fox, fox. Special attention was paid to the researchers valuable species of wild animals, such as sable, muskrat, beaver, deer, elk, antelope, whose numbers even before the revolution greatly reduced because of predatory fishing. On the basis of scientific papers on the biology and ecology of these species have developed practical recommendations for their conservation, restoration and management of the fishery.
Large effect given research and practical work on the enrichment of our fauna by acclimation furry animals, especially muskrat, mink, raccoon poloskun, Ussuri raccoon, nutria.
Institute scientists have been actively involved in the implementation and in the production of the developed recommendations, which significantly increased the size of pieces of fur. The scale of the work says that for 35 years has been settled in most areas of the USSR about 300 thousand heads of game animals. Obtained over many years of production due to the newly domesticated about 20% of the hunting of fur.
Thanks to the implementation in practice of the Institute developed proposals fur trade involved more than 10 new species of animals: squirrels, chipmunks, water rat, mole rat, zokor, loir, pika and the mole. Annual harvesting of these species, grouped under the name "spring" in the Soviet Union are 80-100 million in the amount of 7.8 million. The development of the spring fishery resources of the country filled up fur. At the same time it was very important to strengthen the control of pests of agriculture and forestry and for the elimination of natural foci of some dangerous disease, plague, tularemia, encephalitis taiga.
Study of state, territorial distribution and population dynamics of most commercial species of fur and some hoofed animals and game birds is a scientific basis for the annual predictions "harvest" of game animals. Existing in the Institute for more than 40 years of service has a permanent network of weather voluntary ohotkorrespondentov, numbering about nine thousand. Based on the information ohotkorrespondentov and staff specialized items that are in many parts of the country, the scientists of the Institute annually develop and transmit economic, procurement and planning organization forecasts "harvest" of furry animals and upland game. The projections are given guidance on planning hunting and harvesting, for the rational development of the inventory of animals and birds.
Since the 30s the institute conducted the study of the hunting grounds in the main geographical areas of landscape
USSR. The studies developed principles and methods of classification, appraisal and typology of land, internal device ohothozyaystvennyh businesses and farms bonded sports societies. Spotted performance and productivity of different types of forest and water bodies, the methods of zoning and large-scale mapping.
A central task ohothozyaystvennoy activity is increasing productivity in the field. Performing her was related to research issues of the economy and the organization of hunting. Development of wild fur pieces in the Far North facilitated by the organization of collective farms, where hunting was seen as an important branch of social production. To strengthen the positive effect zverovogo fishing and organization promyslovoohotnichih stations. Scientific advice allowed in 1943-1945. establish a system of state fishing muskrat farms that have centralized management by the State muskrat office.
Institute substantiated by organizations in a wide network of consumer cooperatives koopzveropromhozov. Over the past five years, gross production only promhozah Rospotrebsoyuza doubled, including fur by 70%. Research in the field of economics of hunting areas are multi-they affect the integrated development of commercial hunting, production, rationing, and wage hunters, pricing, zoning and location of enterprises, accounting and reporting, interdepartmental relations.
The institute developed the problem of effective management of hunting and farming due to heavy industrial and agricultural development of large areas of Siberia and the Central Asian republics.
In close connection with problems of increasing productivity in the fishery are many years of research to improve the technical equipment of hunting. The institute studied the methods and technique of getting many types of fur and hoofed animals, upland and waterfowl, systematization carried guns used by hunters in the field. Departmental standards developed by the commercially available traps and other fishing gear. Designed, constructed and tested in field conditions over a hundred different models samolovnyh guns, the best of which utilized in production.
Central Council has put in place designed to ensure the standards institute promhozov hunting weapons, ammunition, samolovami, clothing and footwear. The industrial production of prepared and tested samples of the summer fishing conditions, autumn and summer clothes hunting skis. Perform some work on the mechanization of labor-intensive processes in the cedar fisheries allocated to the latest models of machines for extraction and purification of nuts of Siberian and Korean pine.
The Institute is working to develop a hunting dog in the commercial areas of the country. Available in the experimental zverohozyaystve "Vyatka" kennel of hunting dogs is the supplier of the material in many commercial farms, where nests are purebred West Siberia and the Russian-European Laika. As a result of breeding and education directions foundations of a new plant breeds huskies developed draft standards four basic rocks.
Development ohotovedcheskoy science provided a basis entirely new industry research, Commodity fur raw materials. Evaluation and standardization of furs by product attributes associated with the name of the Head of the Institute Professor Boris Mikhailovich Zhitkov. His work in this area has continued and expanded Boris Kuznetsov and Boris Fedorovich Tserevitinovym. Their research formed the basis of the course "Commodity pushnomehovogo raw materials."
In the area of merchandising investigated age, seasonal and geographical variability hides essential fur animals, designed to assess the product characteristics of fur raw materials by species and ridges. In order to predict the timing of the end of the molting animals and establish the most appropriate calendar terms used in the manufacture of hunting proposed by the Institute test method shootings. Developed quality indicators and evaluation methods of fur raw materials, identified its most important trade and technological properties, classified material defects, determine the cause of education, and methods of prevention, establish rules defektirovaniya materials. In our country there are national standards and specifications for the receipt and evaluation of all harvested species of natural wool, fluff, fur and skins, projects which were developed at the Institute.
Ohotovedcheskih part of research is the study of wildlife diseases. In some regions revealed high invasion animal helminths, which has a negative effect on the reproduction of livestock. In the last decade of research carried out in the centers of mass death of tularemia and muskrat Ogle, studied the fauna of ectoparasites, tested methods of vector control of these diseases. On a number of reservoirs in Siberia, the existence of epizootic outbreaks pseudotuberculosis, studied clinical features, aetiology and pathogenesis of dermatitis in sables and suggested methods of prevention. Along with the study of diseases of animals living in nature, studies are the most common diseases of cell furry animals.
On cellular farming specialized research institute began in 1934, the major challenges for farming is to study possibilities of development of the industry in different climatic zones. Based on research and extensive organizational work of specialists zagotupravleny potrebsoyuzov utilized in large-scale cellular farming in the southern zone of the country. Especially norkovodstvo successfully developed in Ukraine and Belarus, Uzbekistan, Krasnodar Territory and the Astrakhan region. Members of the Institute have new color variations of nutria.
The results of research carried out at the institute, presented in scientific works, monographs, compilations and popular literature. Number of scientific publications is more than 4.5 thousand titles.
Over the past 50 years at the institute have been major changes: increased material resources research, expanded peripheral network immeasurably improved facilities for experimental work. VNIIOZ has experienced staff of scientists and heads of laboratories, sectors and branches. 170 scientists, including 60 candidates for biological, agricultural, veterinary and engineering, are working to carry out case studies Ninth Five-Year Plan.
Scientific staff perform extensive links with scholars of universities and other research institutes working on issues close to our profile. Systematic liaison with foreign biologists and game wardens. Over the past years, our scientists took part in VIII, IX and X International Congress of Game Biologists and Hungarian Symposium 1971.
Central Council has invested heavily in the development of material resources ohotovedcheskih, fur and merchandising research. In coming years, scientists will have a new laboratory building at an estimated cost of which is close to 1 million rubles. Considerable sums are invested in the construction of industrial premises area offices of the Institute. Paid much attention to creating conditions of life for scholars, professionals, workers and employees of the Institute, and the offices zverohozyaystva.
In 1928-1930. organized six zonal offices. Now they are at the Institute 14. They are as different parts of the country and serve the most important in ohothozyaystvennom and farmed for the regions.
The territorial distribution of branches corresponds to the tasks of research approach to production facilities. A lot of work is done directly in promhozah, everohoeyaystvah, rayzagotkontorah and enterprises, processing hunting, fur and animal products. Constant field observations and experiments are conducted on five strong points and 29 hospitals.
Positive impact on the development of biological research was the creation of a major scientific and experienced zverohozyaystva "Vyatka". Fur-bearing animals of the main livestock farms and biological stations serve as objects for multiple and diverse wildlife biology research. The economic activities of the Institute for fur farming has a great impact on improving livestock animals in many cell zverohozyaystvah consumer cooperatives. For acquisition of fur farms sold over 40 thousand valuable breeding minks, foxes, foxes, and nutria. Since 1970, income zverohozyaystva "Vyatka" fully pays all costs associated with the activities of the Institute and its branches. in a hunting economy of the country a lot of unresolved issues. Institute scientists are aware of the responsibility for the production and direct their forces to develop specific activities for the effective development of cooperative and state fishing and public hunting.
In the new five-year institution to solve problems of great complexity, they require the accelerated pace of research and the introduction of scientific work in the industry. The main problems for raw materials and hunting are the development of biological foundations of rational use and protection of natural resources, improve accounting methods, prediction and control of the number of animals and birds, the implementation of measures aimed at improving the productivity and profitability of land ohothozyaystvennyh enterprises. The most important task is to develop common perspectives integrated environmental management and reproduction of game animals.
In the field of animal breeding research will be aimed at further improving the performance of fur farms and the involvement of the cellular production of new types of furs of wild animals native fauna.
Before researchers working on issues of commodity research and standardization are the goal of reducing losses during harvesting and primary processing of raw materials, maximize the use of natural resources of the economy, the creation of more sophisticated and effective methods of evaluation and standardization of commodity raw materials.
After passing the 50-year activity, the team VNIIOZ gives his creative work to the successful implementation of the tasks set for science XXIV Congress of the CPSU.
On the question of our correspondent, as you meet the 50th anniversary of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the answer:
Bogdanov, Head of Department for the Protection of Nature, and Hunting USSR
Ended the first year of the Ninth Five confirmed the reality plans adopted XXIV Congress of the CPSU. Successfully executed the plan in terms of the most important products. Increased labor productivity in industry and agriculture.
We are pleased with the case and hunters. For 1971 compared to 1970 sales of furs State, according to the CSB, has increased by 40%. In 1970, purchase of state fishing fur was 22 million rubles., Then in 1971 was purchased for 30 million rubles. Increased importation squirrels, martens, foxes, minks and skins of other commercial species of animals.
Sale to the state fishing furs increased all Soviet republics except the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic and Tajikistan. The greatest number of commercial furs sold by the Russian Federation, the Kazakh SSR, the Ukrainian SSR and Byelorussian SSR.
Over the past year, sales have increased slightly the state of meat of wild ungulates. Total of hunting country in 1971, the state put 89 thousand centners of meat and 592 thousand. upland game, while in 1970 it was sold to 66.6 centners of meat and 360 thousand. upland game.
Increased sales of state hunting and related products, fish, antlers, mushrooms, nuts, berries, honey, etc.
A significant increase in the production of hunting products in 1971, mainly contributed to a popular movement and the immense scale of socialist competition in honor of the XXIV Congress of the CPSU. Currently socialist competition for early completion and fulfillment of the plan of the second year with a new five-year plan unfolded by force. It is dedicated to the 50th anniversary of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first multinational state of workers and peasants.
This is truly a national movement involving hundreds of oil field and hunting Glavohoty RSFSR, Central Union, all the Union republics, the collective and state farms, specialized in hunting, tens of thousands of hunters, fishermen and hundreds of thousands of amateur hunters, members of hunters and anglers of all republics. The initiators of the All-Union socialist competition among organizations made hunting of wildlife management and conservation Gosleskomiteta Kirghiz SSR and RosOkhotRybolovSoyuz. bot some general information about the course of socialist competition for hunting organizations in the country. All republican government task of hunting, having increased socialist commitments to increase in 1972 production sale to the state hunting from 10 to 20%.
These commitments will be achieved by increasing the productivity of the hunting grounds by the expansion of the areas of reproduction sites and sites involved forage crops, expansion of biotech activities to not increase the number of animals and birds in the hunting grounds, organizations greater involvement of hunters to perform ohothozyaystvennyh and biotechnical volunteer, improve mass awareness among hunters and the public about compliance with the rules of hunting, sport fishing and conservation, increasing the volume of production, expanding the range of products and increase the implementation of industrial societies of hunters and anglers by 6-8% compared to the 1971 and a corresponding increase in income from production and trading activities. Will be greatly enhanced the construction of houses of hunters and fishermen, boat bases, making boats, recreational equipment for hunters, fishermen and tourists, etc.
Results of socialist competition fail Defence in the first quarter of 1973 will be presented to the best organization in the USSR National Economy.
Our goal, our objective is to develop in every way a noble movement to increase the output of commodity products, furs, wild game hunting and other related products, on a fitting welcome the fiftieth anniversary of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. There is no doubt that these obligations hunters fulfill with honor!
N. OVSYANNIKOV, chairman of the Central Council of the All-Russian Society for Nature Conservation, the Deputy Minister of Land Reclamation and Water Resources of the Russian Federation
The Soviet people are more labor successes meet his great feast-the 50th anniversary of the USSR.
In preparation for this anniversary, our party and the Soviet people with legitimate pride looking back at the path, the path of great achievements and victories, which brought great achievements in all areas of life.
In our country, much is being done for the preservation and increase the wealth of nature. Here is an example only a few numbers, to more vividly imagine the magnitude of nature protection. In the Russian Federation hold annual planting of trees and other forest restoration works on the area of more than one million hectares, which is almost one and a half times as much as was done in the pre-revolutionary Russia for 70 years. Much work is being done for the development of water management and water conservation. Daily discharge of untreated wastewater enterprises of the country fell by more than 32 million cubic meters in the past five years were more than five thousand complex treatment plant, designed to process 25 million cubic meters of waste one. In a few dozen times increased crop areas and particularly irrigated land, giving excellent yields of agricultural crops.
The state has invested and continues to invest heavily in the further enhancement of natural resources, soil fertility, irrigation, increasing forest and fisheries, the organization reserves and sanctuaries and many other activities related to the improvement of nature and increasing its resources.
In a large and generous nature conservation actively involved All-Russian Society for the Protection of Nature. Is a volunteer grassroots organization, including now together over 20 million people. Company brings together 140 thousand local organizations and over 50 thousand members of the collective industrial enterprises, collective farms, institutions, agencies. Its main task is widely actively promote the implementation of measures for rational use, reproduction and conservation of land, water resources, mineral resources of land, flora and fauna, the development of gardening and horticulture, the fight for clean air and water, to attract the general population participation "conservation.
Gratuitous social work, community members invested in this work, gives enormous benefits to the national economy.
All-Russian Society for the Protection of Nature, all his many millions of time conservation involved in socialist competition for Lenin's attitude to nature, devoted to the 50th anniversary of the USSR.
Organization of the All-Russian Society for the Protection of Nature in the territories, regions and the Autonomous Republic were the pioneers of large events. For example, on the initiative of Moscow, Vologda and Kalinin regional councils on a voluntary basis to be completed landscaping water route of the Volga-Baltic Waterway, as well as the port and gateway. This initiative is taken up by community organizations in other territories and areas where the trails begin to landscaping of roads, waterways, water reservoir banks. In the Bryansk region, for example, the company has initiated a mass campaign under the slogan "Small rivers overflowing, and purity." It decided to build a volunteer 264 dam and lock afforest of rivers, ponds, gullies and ravines on the area of more than 3 hectares. Already built 97 dams and 20 ponds began plantations.
To carry out this work Saturdays and Sundays organize, collective members of society to help technique. This hike announced all-Russian. It includes the Chelyabinsk, Sverdlovsk, Krasnodar, Moscow (regional), Yaroslavl, Magadan and other institutions of society.
In Chelyabinsk and Sverdlovsk in industry volunteer organize technical committees, and in the shops, checkpoints. They involve engineers, technicians, craftsmen and workers. They help to improve production processes, implement water recycling, reducing the consumption of water for production, dispose of waste waters of valuable substances, and thereby contribute to the successful elimination of water pollution. A committee established by the river basins, such as the Volga and Desna. They study and consider issues of concern related to the use of land, water and other natural resources, and to make suggestions and recommendations to policy makers and planners of the country. In addition, they exercise public control over the proper use and protection of these river basins.
All-Russian Society for the Protection of Nature in every way enhances communication and interaction with the city, district and especially the village council of workers' deputies, as well as with the collective farms in the management of, appreciation and protection of land, forest, water and other natural resources. It gives good results. For example, with the active assistance of the Chairman of the Lower Village Council Pavlovsky Orenburg region AI Brykovoy three farms located in the Village Council, organized the primary organization of society, which numbers more than 1,500. Forces asset farms on sandy land was included 86 ha of forest belts, and at 42 hectares held weed. Organized and there are 18 public control posts for land protection.
Kolkhoz Krasnodar Region XXII Party Congress joined the collective members of society. It created a primary organization, which has 1,700. Members of the public in the short term have planted over 18 thousand ornamental and fruit trees, two thousand roses. Assets of the Company is involved in the construction of ponds and irrigated pastures.
Along with the activities, which give direct economic benefit, the All-Russian Society for Nature is doing a lot of agitation and advocacy, fostering a love of nature, respect for her wealth, for this purpose on a voluntary basis are houses and clubs of nature, people's universities, exhibitions, members society hundreds of thousands of people are reading lectures, reports and interviews. In cities and towns in honor of important dates and events planned to plant trees and avenues to call them alleys astronauts, veterans of labor, etc.
Go to the protection of nature is widely attracting the youth. She works in the public inspection on protection of forests, water bodies. Younger members of society, united in the youth section, organize "green" and "blue" patrols and posts, carry out the "Bird Day." "Forest Day". Special attention should work with young people in schools, including vocational and technical schools, colleges and universities.
All-Russian Society for Nature Conservation is working closely with Glavohotoy RSFSR Council of Ministers and the Union of hunters and fishermen of the RSFSR. Our goal is to continue to fully expand ties and cooperation with these organizations.
Diverse work public on the fight to improve the human environment for the management, restoration of natural resources and nature conservation should be fully supported, encouraged and made mass.
Solutions XXIV Congress of the CPSU and the preparation for the 50th anniversary of the USSR-Russia yield), Environmental Protection Society new energy.
People of our country with their personal commitment, with his hands to help preserve and enhance its natural resources. Nature conservation in the USSR is the cause of all the Soviet people. Let all the Soviet people, who love native nature, bereguschie it will make to this business contribution.
Mr. Yurko, Republican Council UHFA
On the significant date of the 50th anniversary of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the same 50 years since the foundation of our hunting society.
For anniversaries Ukrainian hunters came up with good results. At the regional and district councils, as well as in the primary collectives significantly improved mass organizational, cultural and educational work. Socialist competition in honor of the XXIV Congress of the CPSU and the XXIV Congress of the Communist Party were covered ace units of society.
Available in the country of 53.8 million hectares of hunting grounds for the company secured 47.1 million hectares. On a fixed territory organized 549 bonded hunting a total area of 10.3 million hectares. The rest of the teams assigned to the primary. Farm ohotustroystvo is nearing completion-arranged 98% of farms.
29% of the area set aside for the reproductive parts. All of the major biotech event exceeded. Annual growth of livestock pig lands allotted to the society, has reached 17%, elk -9, -10 deer, roe 12%. Number hare kept the same as last year.
The Company is involved in a shoot off the prey to pass state and meat for export. Since 1971, work began on the organization blanks furs counterparty basis. Much attention is paid to captive game propagation and subsequent release of a young land. Work has already begun on breeding pheasants and mallards. Scheduled breeding gray and rock ptarmigan, gray goose, bustard, grouse, hare.
Members of the society include about 8 thousand hunting dogs of various breeds, including 2670 graduates for working qualities.
Ukrainian Hunting and Fishing Association has actively participated in the World Hunting Exhibition, held in 1971 in Budapest. Of the 35 items presented by us eolo1ye medals were awarded 24 trophies, 10 silver trophies, and one bronze. In 1972, will be held the first national contest for the best hunting trophy. This contest is dedicated to the 50th anniversary UHFA. In the future, the national contest for the best trophy hunting of Ukraine will be held annually.
The Company has 389 hunting clubs, including 307 in its own premises, specialized hunting and fishing holiday home named Ostap cherries on 235 seats in the Kherson region, in 1971, was released 36 posters circulation 43,900 copies, 147 copies of leaflets and appeals 256640 copies. and created 66 amateur movies for hunting and fishing theme. In print, "Mr. Hunter's Handbook Ukrainian fisherman." During the year, 195 were held shooting-stand competition and prepared in 1174 based bench shooter.
Improved considerably on fisheries and fish farming. Almost all regional councils spend stocking ponds assigned to them, in 1971, was released 32 million fingerlings (average 470 pieces per 1 ha). Members of the public are taking participation in fishing tournaments.
Production plan in 1971, the company made to 103.4%, and the trade-plan by 116.7%.
In commemoration of the 50th anniversary of the Soviet Union and the 50th anniversary of the society declared national contest for the best service registration district hunting, best fishing base, the best hunting club and shop district, inter-district and city councils and the best company UHFA.
Contests aim to achieve further success in reproducing stocks of game animals and hunting and fishing facilities on a scientific basis, and to improve educational work among the members of society, and a field of cultural services.