Shiver through the body
If a person is left with a cold one on one — for a while the body is able to fight back. The struggle always follows the same pattern: first we covered with goose bumps. This reflex is a holdover from our furry ancestors: to increase the thermal insulation layer liruyuschy must raise hair on end. Of course, now is better than another method does not want to freeze the body, to do everything possible to keep the operating temperature for the internal vital organs. Vessels in the skin constrict to heat accumulation in the blood does not escape, the delivery of blood to the extremities fading net.Sleduyuschaya stage — perniosis. This is when the "shaking from the cold." Due to involuntary muscle contractions produced more heat. At body temperature, 35 ° tremor reaches a maximum. At 32 ° it is stopped and the body begins to "freeze" the skin is blue, there are often hallucinations. When cooled by 2 degrees, as a rule, a person loses consciousness, as if asleep. All functions of the body barely smoldering, to conserve the remaining heat. Almost no pulse, blood pressure falls, but in this state it can still be saved. In the hospital setting methods such as intravenous infusion of warm solution, hemodialysis with warm blood components, etc.
What to do with frost-bitten
* In severe cases (loss of consciousness, swelling, blistering, hardening of the skin, changing its color to the waxy, bluish-purple) call the "fast". Prior to her arrival, the victim must be placed in a warm place, carefully remove wet clothing, wrapped in blankets. Optimal, but not always acceptable way to warm his body man, better — two. * A strong supercooling recover better in a warm bath (about 38 degrees, you can check the water elbow, as when bathing the child), but do not immerse the victim whole, and to start with chilblain — warming in the water until the normal skin color, about 20 minutes — 30). (Do not the hot tub! Uses frostbite when it will bring, but can only do serious harm.) * A warm drink (soup, cocoa, tea). * Painkillers. * The affected skin, apply insulating gauze bandages.
What you can not do
* Rub the snow! This only exacerbates hypothermia, as well as tissue damage, you can easily carry infection. * Warms the dry heat (the fire, plate, his hands and feet on the battery)! Risk of irreversible tissue damage. * Provide alcohol and coffee. Sharp blow to the narrowing of blood vessels can cause them to rupture, internal bleeding, disruption of the heart. * Timesharing blisters on frostbitten areas.
To keep warm
Too cold, and serious, and can be at a temperature above zero — high humidity and high winds. Also contribute to this fatigue, poor nutrition (eg, fasting, sitting on a diet), alcohol, and close — though warm — clothing and footwear. And some diseases — disorders of blood circulation in the blood vessels, nervous and endocrine disorders. Also, cold resistance decreases with age and with heavy smokers.
* On leave in cold layering: two sweaters under your coat or jacket, double gloves, cotton, and wool socks on top. Remove any metal jewelry such as rings, chains and bracelets. * Do not lubricate the face cream, especially moisturizer! Greatly increases the risk of frostbite. With mild to moderate frosts use oily cosmetics, with strong — do not use on the face and her. * Do not go out on an empty stomach. * If you feel that your feet, your hands start to freeze, immediately start to move, after doing this will be painful. * Do not rub the face mitten, with a dry hand, and better practice your grimacing: smile, wrinkling his nose. * After much chilled, be warned, once finally in a warm place: in public transport, try to sit down, because it is often accompanied by a process of heating the severe pain and dizziness up to faint.