The tent has long been a faithful companion travelers. However, to serve as a reliable tent, it has to be properly treated. First of all, we have to choose a place where there will be a tent. Requirements for it are slim. First, there should be no bumps, hills, protruding tree roots, rocks, etc. It is undesirable to set a tent on grass. Second, this place should not be eaten raw. Third, the location is not to be retreating to sleeping at night is not slid against each other. If a place can not be found and must be broken in a tent that has a small slope, it should be put down the slope to the night, in the case of sliding, sleeping shifted down and not pushed against each other. Finally, there should be no nearby anthills, there should not be much of rotten overhanging trees.
How to set up a tent? Establish a tent a few people, most often two or four. Particular, once the manner defined Camping does not exist. Let us consider a few options.
The tent has a 14 stretch — 2 coming from the ridge to 3 on the side wings and six on the floor. The theory is that in order to properly install a tent to be used all 14 extensions. So, for example, children's tourist the flights often require that tents were set this way. In this case, the need to set the tent pegs 14 to 15-25 cm in length and two support legs, the length of each column must match the height ridge above the floor: for "poludatki" — is 1.5 m, for "pamirki" — 1.2 m , etc. At first stretched tent floor from the corner braces. You can start with stretching, diagonally, you can — with the extensions that are with any one party. You should not just start from the middle stretch — so even harder to pull the floor.
When the floor is extended, set the support legs that support the horse stalls. Tent construction provides that the rack is placed inside the tents: one — the rear wall, the other — at the entrance. To install a ridge made two holes with grommets: the upper front end goes into the grommet, the bottom rests on the tent floor. However, experience shows that placing racks inside the tent is not necessary. With strong stringing eyelets, sooner or later break out of the tent fabric. The gap is easily going on, and how much would it then not patched and not sewn up, the strength of the tent will be reduced in the very busy place. Therefore it is better to have a stand outside the tent. If they are made exactly the height tent, they can be put close to the rear wall and the entrance, down to the upper front edge eye for which fastens guy skate. If the rack is slightly above the tent, then put the eye on top rack will not succeed. In this case, set the rack, slightly deviating from the tent, and through it to the girth allowed respite. Best of all, if there is any place girth knot, it certainly will prevent sling from slipping down the rack. If there is no such a bitch, you just have to tighten sling around the stand.
Sometimes tourists try installing racks score or push their lower ends to the ground. This is not necessary. If the installation of tents all goes well, the rack holding the tent quite reliably. Procedure for installation of supports that. One tourist sets stand near the entrance, and strengthens her sling (or lay on top of her eye.) The other does the same thing against the back wall of the tent. After that one, holding horse stalls, keeps supporting poles upright and the other pulls tighter first one ridge quickdraw and scored a peg in the ground at the end of it, and then doing it with a second sling. Now you have to pull a guy lateral wings. Here, too, always start with the corner braces. Most often, one of the tourists continued to hold a ridge tent to the support legs to the side did not fail, and the other scores in the ground pegs and strings them corner guy. However, in this case, the beginner become easily folds on the side slopes of the tent, as it is almost certainly one of the guys will pull stronger or weaker than others, and fail to choose the location pegs. Therefore, it is best if the cause will take once four. Each takes up a corner sling, all four at the same time pull them and look, will not it folds. If they were formed, try, who must reduce or, on the contrary, pull sling stronger. After a fitting done, drive the pegs and guy lines are attached to them.
If you are working two or three (or even one holding the support legs from falling), we get some interim version of the above installation methods. After tense corner guy wings should pull averages. Now the tent is set all the rules.
There are simpler ways to setup the tent. First of all, do not always have to pull tent floor. More often than not, you can get along perfectly (no need for six pegs). Then, almost as often you can do without pulling average guy on the wings (minus two cola). Finally, spending the night in the forest, you can almost always stretch the horse stalls between two trees and not to use support legs (not needed the support legs and two small cola). So instead of 14 small stakes and 2 large racks tent can be set on only four pegs. For tents in this way is to build up a rope ridge braces or replace them longer. Then you can pull the tent some distance between the trees.
Often there is a place you want to install the tent, on the one hand there is a suitable tree to tighten the sling ridge, and on the other — no. You can, of course, in this case to use the leg. But you can tie up to the eye of the second rope on the ridge or if guy long enough, wrap it in strengthening its not the end of the lug and the middle. Guy gets a double (front-left and front-right), which allows you to use the trees growing on the side. But these trees are almost always there, if we could not find two trees that can stretch the horse stalls directly.
Inside the tent to fit her gender or inflatable mattresses (of which we have already spoken — see p. 61 — 62), or something else. Instead mattresses tourists often use a variety of things — small foam mats, pieces of canvas, padded jackets, sporok from an old coat — in short, everything that is suitable for use as a gasket. The most simple — take it out of the house, one for each excess blanket tent. In some cases, instead of doing the litter, usually of spruce fir twigs, which are placed under the floor of the tent before you install it. There was a time when a litter did almost all tourist groups. At present, when tourism has become widespread, the use of spruce branches for tents was an undesirable, and now the use of coniferous litter is justified only when winter camping accommodations. I think that young tourists should go down this path and use the spruce branches only in some extreme cases, when forced, unplanned overnight stay.
Tourist tent in the rain is usually wet. Tents of canvas, Reps, cape-tent fabric get wet even when they are new. Tent of rubberized or water-repellent fabric percale start getting wet after one or two seasons, and the tents are usually much longer.
What advice can be given to this case? First of all — good stretch tent. If the side slopes formed wrinkles, it is in these places a tent in the first place begins to flow. Further, to avoid touching the tent slopes head or shoulders. Taut tent wet, but does not pass into the water, just like an open umbrella. However, one of them would lean against the wall or slope, as at this point the water begins to penetrate into the tent, drop by drop.
How can increase the resilience of the tent the water? In tourist handbooks often are recipes repellent compositions for impregnating fabric tents. However, in practice few people use them — it's too difficult. It is much better to use plastic capes. Experienced travelers are glued or welded (using iron or soldering iron) of several pieces of polyethylene single large cape so that it covered not only the rain tent, and set beside her backpacks. This cape is equipped with hinges and a thin stretch marks on the corners and on the ridge. Beginners tourists at first you can get just a couple of pieces of polyethylene. They can easily be fixed on the tent pegs with underwear. If there clothespins, you can pin down a piece of polyethylene to the tent with long branches, putting them at one end on the ground, and the other on the tent. To strengthen plastic wraps may be used and the rope, catching her to lug tents and transferring to the next eyelet on the other side of a ridge. Often used for this purpose the average guy who remained slack. You can combine all of these methods, for example, to strengthen the polyethylene tent pegs on the edges and in the middle, where the two pieces overlap, put the branch.
Causing many difficulties for young tourists strengthening guy on a piece of plastic, as any rope knots quite easily with a slide. Therefore it is better to do so, first tie a knot in the corner of the plastic piece, and then attach the sling.
It happens that the polyethylene is not enough to cover the whole tent. In such cases, young tourists sometimes for some reason decide not to cover the tent at all. Polyethylene is on the floor, under the head or not used at all. This is incorrect. Better to close part of the tent, than expose it to rain completely. In this case, you should try to hide in the first place that part of the tent, beneath which lie the sleeping body. If PE is not enough and so, it will be moved so that he hid in the first place horse and the adjacent part of the slope. Those parts that are closer to the wings can be left uncovered — it's not so bad.
Apart from plastic capes, tourists quite often use tents made of some light fabric. Fabric sewn into a rectangle of such size that it could easily close the tent top. At the corners and at the fold, corresponding ridge tents, strengthen eyes or loops for braces. Unlike plastic capes awning not put on top of the tent, and pull on it, so that between him and the tent was a gap of at least 5-10 cm above the tent for this parallel ridge pull rope. Canopy thrown over the rope and attach the corners to "sling. It is not necessary that the tent was made of waterproof fabric. Taut canopy protects the tent, like an umbrella. Therefore, it is usually chosen fabric cheaper.
Here are some useful tips. If the tent too small, it is necessary to reduce the height of the ridge above the floor. To do this, shorten the support legs or bind ridge guy is lower than usual, to the tree. The whole tent settles, the lower parts of the side walls will fall to the ground and serve as a continuation of the tent floor, making the tent once it becomes larger. If you put up a tent without first stretching the floor, it is necessary to fasten sign at least two loops, one connecting the two banners at the entrance, and the other, connecting them with the floor tent. If you do not, you can easily drag a tent in height (if the floor at the edges will be in the air) or wide (then the input will be closed).
When attaching the guys do not have to create a system of intricate, clever knots — then they mess it would be long to untie. Around the tree enough to put in one sling girth and tie in a knot, as shown in Figure 17, a.
Fig. 17. Nodes that you used to install the tent
End, going back to the tent, can be stretched tight as you like. He did not unleash. Loose end just pull over to the node immediately undone. It is also better to lug sling mount quite simple knot (Fig. 17.6), which consists of one tightening the noose. At the ends of the pegs for the guys should do a loop, using the so-called node conductor (Fig. 17b). The same unit can make a loop in the middle of the delays, if it appears that the length of its high. It's easier than a lot of it around the time obkruchivat peg.
When driving with the pegs to attach them to tilt away from the tent, and not to her. Otherwise delays will easily jump. It is convenient, scoring pegs, turn back to the tent, and not forward. When stringing ridge guys through support columns must follow to horse stalls, stands and peg a guy who is attached, were in line. Otherwise the tent will be — unstable. Direction angle braces on the wings of the tent should not coincide with the continuation of one of the lateral edges of the tent slope (Fig. 18).
Fig. 18. Direction angle braces tent:
and — correctly; b, — is not correct.
Many tourists prefer to cut down on each bivouac new pegs, and make yourself a set of duralumin pegs corners or thin metal rod with a diameter of 4-5 mm (Fig. 19a).
It is quite possible to recommend and young tourists. Making them difficult, and the time required for tents, is greatly reduced. Manufacturing set pegs, to do a few spare. The pegs are easily lost. For pegs made of parts, it is recommended to have a canvas or leather cover, and for the pegs of metal rod — rubber tube slightly larger diameter. Wrap nezachehlennye pegs in the tent not recommended: they can damage the tent.
Less popular, but still quite common among tourists pre-made rack for a tent. For their production takes duralumin tube diameter of 1-1.5 cm
Per rack will need 3 tubes for about 40-45 cm long. Tent in the apex height ranges from 1.2 to 1.5 m Given this, it is necessary to select and the length of the tubes. In one of these tubes at both ends tightly clog wooden plugs. The ends of the tubes length of 3-4 cm remain outside. Plugs should be carefully handle rasp, so that they can be tight enough to put other handsets. This will be the average of the rack. The upper and lower bands are easily interfaced with it. At one end of the upper tube to do any device, the rope does not slide down the smooth metal surfaces: surface metal washer, two through holes through which reinforced wire wound around a tube, a recess in the top of the tube, and so on (Figure . 19b).
If there is not enough long aluminum alloy tubes, it is possible to make a stand of three round wooden poles with a diameter of 2-3 cm at the ends of the average short skewer sticks tightly duralumin tube about 8 inches long. They will serve as a sleeve, into which you can insert the other two sticks that make up the rack. On top of them must once again make a device to prevent slippage of the rope, and at the bottom, to the end that will rest against the ground, it is possible to impose a short period of the tube.
Now consider several ways to minimize the tent and packing it in a backpack. Usually tents sold in a case that has a view of the elongated bag. However, this cover makes sense to carry a tent except from the shop to the house. Such packaging is too bulky. In appearance, it resembles a small tyuchok. So you can keep the tent at home or at school, but not in the campaign. In the campaign is better to do so.
Fig. 20. The first way folding tent.
The first way, when used as a tent pad, which is placed in a backpack to the back. Two people take a tent for the eyes on the ridge and keep the weight (Fig. 20). Then take the lugs on the corners of the right or left wing and put together by eyelets skate (wing tents stretched along the ridge on the weight). After that, connect with eyelets, reinforced at the corners of the tent floor from the same side as the wing. All the guy throw in the middle of a skate wing stalls, a rear wall and a panel input is filled in, the folds possibly spreading. Then do the same thing with the other side as the weight of the tent. Then put a tent on the ground and smooth wrinkles. After that, it resembles something like a layered carpet. Now roll up the tent on both sides in two tight roll. In this form, it is placed in the backpack to stand upright rollers. Two pipes, but at the same time do not give hard roller backpack Easy to carry form. This presentation is especially good backpack if it puts an awkward loads, such as oil cans and buckets or pans for cooking. Two tent roller allow rasperet cans or bucket so that they do not shift during walking.
The second way, when the tent is just a load that has to be put in a backpack, and if so, it is required, so that it takes up less space as possible. In this case, the weight of the tent is folded as described in the first method, but tucked inside the guy, leaving one of them out. After that, put a tent on the ground and placed again doubled in length (Fig. 21), rolled from one end and tied the rest of the outside sling. This is, perhaps, the most compact package tent. If desired, you can roll up the tent and two rollers, as in the first method.
Fig. 21. The second way folding tent
The third way. First, add up the weight of the tent, in the first two methods, and also put on the ground, and then fold it several times the width of one of the ways shown in Figure 22.
Fig. 22. The third way to collapse the tent.
Folded so tent is a rectangle or square. So placed a tent if they want her to put her back in a backpack that is not packed too tightly. If the tent, lying on the ground, lay down again on the length (as in the second method), and then later add a rectangle, you get styling, comfortable to carry under the flap backpack.
I have enough to start these three methods laying tent. Then, as the accumulation of experience, you can modify these methods, to invent their own.
Here are some useful tips. If the night was rain, then, before rolling the tent, it must be dried by the fire. It is necessary to watch closely to her from getting a random spark. In Sunday's march, when arranged just one night, from this rule and refuse. But then we do not lay the tent inside a backpack, and a valve. Drying is a tent house. If the tent is not dry, it quickly sopreet.
Tents made of rubberized percale, sometimes at night sweat inside. This is not terrible — just wipe damp cloth or paper space. For long term storage of tents should pour rubberized surface talc.
In a multi-day hike may have to turn off the camp in the rain, so that the dry tent immediately fails. This case is useful to have a plastic tent, oilcloth or any other waterproof bag, so that it does not get wet items, which are in a backpack, tent or not to get wet then, if it is placed under the valve.
It often happens that the tent get wet, only the side slopes, and the floor is dry. So if you can not dry the tent camp at Deploy and no hope to do it in the evening, when staking camp, we must try to put it so that the floor as little as possible in contact with the soaked slopes. None of the three methods described above for this is no good. Stacking arrangement, which can be recommended in this case, gives a rather bulky package, but it is difficult to offer the best. Tent take on both sides of the middle of the floor and pull the weight as it used to do with the ridge tent (Fig. 23),
Fig. 23. The fourth way to collapse the tent.
push dangling down the tent to the right or to the left and possibly straighten them. Then fold the tent in half across the width. The bottom of the tent at the same time will not touch soaked parts. Then straighten wrinkling and fold it so again. Now you can roll a tent with one or both ends, or to lay down a few times. Of the entire area of the floor of the tent is wet with touches only very small square, and if the point of contact to put a piece of polyethylene, someone's towel or scarf, you can keep the floor dry. Well, the floor can be dry, at worst, to sleep without drying the whole tent.