Yellow ground squirrel or gopher-sandstone — citellus fulvus lichtenstein. The daily life of the seasonal

Behavior. In early spring, in the first days after leaving normal after hibernation, ground squirrels most of life in the warmest time of the day. During this period, the most active are the males in connection with the rut. In late spring, during the birth and feeding young, young out to the surface and intense zhironakopleniya adult males, gophers Vital activity from morning to evening. At this time, males, lactating females and young are very active, a pregnant female, on the contrary, very careful. In early summer, during the settlement of young and hibernation adults profit Vital activity all animals day unlike adults, who usually go out of their burrows in the cool morning and evening hours. At the height of summer on the surface can be found mostly young squirrels are active in the morning and evening. Two peaks of activity during the day, yellow gopher expressed especially sharply. Noon break is considerably longer than the average squirrel in their places of cohabitation (the vicinity of the village. Ili). This finds its suitability otrayasenie yellow gopher for life in the desert with their high midday temperatures which can be fatal to animals.

Active period of life yellow gopher lasts about three to four months. This rodent energetic spring (March — May) and early summer. Therefore, data on the timing of daily activity in different geographical locations are not significantly different. Here are averages of observations on seven guinea settlements on the island Barsakelmes.

In 1943, the Gophers woke 5 March and lay down to sleep in the first half of June. In the course of that period changed the nature of daily activity.

Over time, the squirrels out of the hole before, and later left for the night. Gradually increase the length of a day of rest and varied time on the surface. Thus the greatest figures (10 h) were obtained in mid-April — a period of intense nazhirovki gophers.

In the first five days after the release of the holes in the ground squirrels during the day were on the surface continuously, but later activity was observed in the two terms, and more intensely in the morning than in the second. For example, on April 15 onaravnyalas75 and 60% of the total number of animals in the settlements, May 15 — 95 and 80%, June 10 — 65 and 32%. Peak activity occurred in the following hours of the day: 10 March — 13 April 15 — 2 hours before leaving for daily rest (11 hours) and an hour after the break (14 h), 15 May — 9 and 17 hours at midday break from 12 to 15 hours, June 10 — 8 and 18 h, and the rest was from 10 to 16 hours

At the beginning of the active life of squirrels do not avoid sunlight during the rut, and pregnancy is no more hot days and the temperature increase at this time only favors the life of animals. Young in the first few days out of the normal active from morning to evening. Later, due to higher temperatures and low humidity, they hide during the day in burrows. Adult animals soon lie dormant, having accumulated enough fat. Young birds that live in bodies of water, do not fall asleep until late autumn. Consequently, some animals have a relatively low temperature of the spring, summer and higher low autumn. Therefore, as the value of the preferred temperature and the temperature optimum these rodents exposed to age and individual variability. The young squirrels in the first days after birth thermoregulation very imperfect, and therefore requires the presence of some females with infants, since her departure pups freeze. They are covered with hair very early — long before the opening of the eyes and to the surface. The animals were forced to crawl out of the burrows shortly after birth or in the nest chambers without a uterus, бываютсовершеннохолоднымина okochenevayut touch and quickly at relatively high ambient temperatures. Thermoregulation in young set, apparently, just before going out of their burrows, where their bodies are sufficiently covered with hair (maybe vvozrasteokolo 15 days).

Thermoregulation in yellow gopher very imperfect. For example, one hour after the transfer of the animal from a warm (25 °) in a cold room (10 °), his body temperature dropped to 9 °.

Dependence of the temperature of the body of the rodent from that environment is expressed to a greater extent than other hibernating rodents (average gopher, gerbils).

Humidity has a great influence on the life of squirrels in late spring — early summer. At this time the animals seem to suffer from the lack of it, and shelter from the dry air in the holes. Especially noticeable is moist sandy soil, which awake squirrels are moving in the summer. More commonly, they are found in bodies of water, where there is enough moisture and lush vegetation. In the dry summer, the young squirrels lie dormant extreme exhaustion. Observed in 1945, the fact of occurrence of juveniles together with adults due to the fact that the spring rainfall contributed to the normal development of plants, and the latter, in turn, provided the squirrels well fed.

Effect of wind on a yellow ground squirrels studied by many authors (Naumov and Spangenberg, 1928 Eagles, 1929). Indicated that the animals avoid the strong winds, and especially afraid of their impulses and abrupt transition from quiet to stormy weather. Speaking about the impact of light on awakening gopher, we (1952) noted that in the early spring when the ground is still covered with snow in the 15-20 cm animals that come to the surface through the vertical hole, often directed at the illuminated side — south, south-east, south-west.

On their habits yellow gopher differs extraordinary caution. Disturbed individual days can not go out of the norm. Particularly attached to their homes in the first days after the exit hibernation and before bedding. In the rest of the year, they tend to peredvilseniyam a distance of 300-400 m from their burrows, to visiting foreign havens, especially during the breeding season and the resettlement of the young.

In yellow gopher developed "instinct house" (Fenyuk, 1941). Of sensory development received special vision. Moving subjects animals to notice at a distance of up to 300 m and more.

Добавить комментарий

Tags: , , , , , ,

Site "Survival in the wild nature", glad to see you. If you come to us, it means you want to get complete information about survival in a variety of extreme conditions, in emergency situations. Man, throughout the development, sought to preserve and protect themselves from the various negative factors surrounding it - cold, heat, hunger, dangerous animals and insects.

Site structure "Survival in the wild nature" is simple and logical, selecting a specific section, you will find information. You will find on our website recommendations and practical advice on survival, unique descriptions and pictures of animals and plants, turn-based scheme to trap wild animals, tests and reviews of travel gear, rare books on survival and wildlife. The site also has a large section devoted to video on survival survivalist-known professionals around the world.

The main theme of the site, "Survival in the wild nature" - is to be ready to be in the wild, and the ability to survive in extreme conditions.

The Survival in the wild nature - how correctly to behave, it having appeared in an emergency situation. Ability to find a way out from any situation: to kindle a fire, to put traps, to prepare food, to arrange dwelling and a lodging for the night; to learn to knit knots, to clear water, to be guided by districts, correctly to choose equipment, a knife. Also you can download directories to tourists, encyclopedias survivals, video Bear Grills to Survive at any cost (Man vs. Wild).