Mole — underground dweller, and his body adapted to this way of life. Head animal ends proboscis. Strong front legs are twisted foot. Unobtrusive eye, vision is weak. The coat is low, but dense and silky, blackish or dark brown color with a steel shade.
Mole Ussuri, or Far East, lives in the Ussuri region. Large size of the animal, the hair thick, gray-brown color.
Mole Siberian is found in Siberia (except for the areas of the tundra and steppes) from the Urals to Lake Baikal and the Lena River. Pubescence dense, black or dark gray. Size large.
Mole Europe lives in the forest and forest-steppe regions of the European part of the USSR. The fur of medium density black or dark gray, some with a touch of Burov-employment. Smaller in size than the Siberian weasel.
Caucasian mole lives in the Caucasus and in the areas closest to it. The smallest of all types of moles living USSR. The coat is a thin, dark gray with a blue color.
Outside the USSR, moles live in many European countries, as well as in Asia and North America. On the international fur market most in demand mole pelts harvested in Scotland and Holland. In Western Europe, the moles are produced in Belgium, Denmark, France, Italy and Germany.
Underground burrows moles are complex structures consisting of a nest chamber, dug deep into the earth, and many branched passages intersecting and connecting passages leading from the ground to the camera. Moles are usually fine holes in deciduous and mixed forests, riverine grasslands, orchards and gardens, that is, where the land is rich in humus and where the most usual earthworms, make up the primary food of moles.
Main food of moles — earthworms and only a small amount of other underground invertebrates, mainly insect larvae.
Cubs are born in the spring, and sometimes in the summer of 2-6 pc. in the same litter. Youngstock spring litter around July is separated from the mother.
Molting in moles is 3 times a year: in the spring, when a rare summer hair replaces thicker winter, at the end of summer, when the hair fall replaces summer, and fall, when replacing a low fur grows polnovolosy winter.
Moles, destroying insects, it is useful for agriculture, but the pitching mound in the meadows and gardens bursting bring him harm.
In prerevolutionary Russia, moles are not mined. Mole fishery began to develop in the first years of Soviet power, but procurement organizations have paid serious attention to the mole Fur only in 1924, is currently occupied by skin moles in the blanks fur one of the first places.
Moles are usually extracted from July to October, mainly springs, wire traps (krotolovkami), which are placed in the mole moves. Where a lot of moles, each fishermen sets krotolovok 150-200, in areas where there are few, — from 50 to 100 pieces. In parts of western Siberia is still mined homemade kulemkami moles that are caught from 600 to 750 animals per year. In some places the mole traps catch arc number 0 and number 1 set out in the passages animal burrows.
Good krotolovy produce more than five thousand moles per year. For example, a hunter Peter Petrov, starting to catch these animals in the Novgorod region another 13-year-old lad, extracted annually no more than 300-400 moles, after returning from the army Peter became krotolovnoe improve business. In 1954, he was to catch 3,200 animals in 1955 -5600, and in 1956 — 7000 pcs. But this amount is not a limit to the best hunters. Some of these products per year 10-12 thousand moles.
Skin moles removed with a cut in the middle layer of casings, sorted into normal, with small defect, with a large defect and marriage. In 1957 the European USSR mole pelts harvested at the price of 1 ruble., and in Siberia to 1 USD. 20 kopecks. for normal skin varieties.
At 192,425, the total was harvested 2100 moll, to 192,526, the 20,770-units in S | 2627 -214 377 pcs. and 192,728 g — 2,267,407 pcs. In the years of mole fur harvesting increased to 7.10 million pelts. Recently, in the USSR annually procure 15-20 million moll.
All harvested skin moles consumed within USSR, where they are used for sewing ladies' coats, hats, muffs and finishing female woolen clothes. Skins, sewn into plates were removed from the USSR abroad until 1948, but big deal in the export of this fur had.