For studying the spatial orientation of the astronauts in zero gravity, playing in a two-jet, we carried out the following experiments. The subject was sitting in the back of the cabin, wear your seat belts to a chair. Pilot flying in the area of weightlessness created right or left heel to 60-65 °.
In front of the "hill" and the onset of weightlessness cosmonaut team pilot closed his eyes and radios device described his impressions of the plane's position. With eyes closed, none of the astronauts could not determine the true nature of the aircraft. Komarov, such as talking about their feelings, "Spatial Orientation hampered when the pilot slide with a roll, I thought that we were flying straight up." Such disorientation is because in weightlessness information from the otolith apparatus is distorted, the subjects of the situation of losing his body in space in relation to the plane of the Earth.
Investigate the possibility of human orientation in weightlessness only by sensations generated by the vestibular apparatus, we have continued the study of the free "navigation" astronauts in weightlessness. They had the task of starting the movement to "pool" in zero gravity, for a short time (5-10 seconds), close your eyes and continue to determine its position in space. Then open your eyes and to compare their subjective spatial concepts to the actual position relative to the geometry of the "pool." It was found that subjects with closed eyes are not able to navigate in space. AG Nikolaev wrote: "Since the beginning of the movement and eye closure in the first hill evaluated in zero gravity on the position in the memory space. This felt that in addition to the movement of the body along the" pool "is a rotation of the body to the right., In my view, I have was located approximately in the middle of the "pool" and turn to 75-90 °. When I opened my eyes, I saw that was actually right about the aircraft and turned by 180 °, ie, was facing the ceiling. second 'hump "I did not open my eyes for about 10 seconds. After 4-6 seconds, I could not visualize its location in the" pool. "I lost my bearings. When I opened my eyes, I was in the back of the plane," suspended "upside down." These experiments were continued to fly on spacecraft "Vostok-3" and "Vostok-4". During the liberation of the tethered system with closed eyes as it was difficult to determine the spatial position of the body as it rotates.
The free volume of space ships, class "East" was relatively small. Very interesting experiments on the space station "Salyut" that our request had while flying astronauts GT Dobrovolsky and V. Volkov. The astronauts were killed, but the records are preserved. The diary VN Volkov of this experiment was written: "An interesting observation related to the assessment of the body in free space the guy with his eyes closed. First, the assessment of his movement far different from what it actually is. We Zhora (Dobrovolskim. — VL) were doing this experience. I closed my eyes and froze, holding hands and releasing the foot from the belts. My buoyancy and subjective position I commented … Mostly it was the opposite. "
Our experiments allowed us to conclude that, in zero gravity, none of the senses, except vision, does not allow the right to adequately correlate the position of the body in space with the environment. Hence the logical question: how adequate and how vision can offer guidance in the environment of man in weightlessness.
Based on the general theoretical concepts, Tsiolkovsky suggested that weightlessness would lead to a change in estimates of the ratio of the body to the surrounding space. In 1911, he wrote: "The top and bottom of the rocket, actually, no, because there is no relative severity, and left without a support body to any side of the rocket does not want, but the subjective feelings of up and down still remain. We feel up and down, just where they are changed with a change of direction of the body in space. aside where our head, we can see the top, and where the feet — down "150.
Assumption Tsiolkovsky was confirmed in the following experiments. On the plane, on the wall of our laboratory has been strengthened with the track "gooey pile" on which you can walk in a special shoe. When walked on in zero gravity in many subjects the impression that this is not a wall, the floor, and that the bottom is in the way. In the experiments, LA Kitaev-Smyk track located on the ceiling. Summing up the results of observation, he wrote: "In experiments with walking on the" sticky "surface for all subjects from the moment of contact with the soles of the" sticky "ceiling cabin a feeling that cockpit turned so walking on the ceiling, as on the floor."
This is indicated impressions astronauts made orbital flights. So, Lebedev said: "… swam in the working compartment not understand how — side table, it's different, but Zatsepa look for something for the panel, interior, and when you understand the relationship of their location, start unfold for them to take the usual upright position. Though there can be any normal situation, standing there on the ceiling down or walk through walls, and only need to carry out the correction of perception, saying to myself, wall — is a floor above it, and all that there — the ceiling, we need only look forward to the future and recognize the picture for the new interior.'s all right now: you refocused and do not feel any discomfort from the fact that you walk through a wall or ceiling "151.
Adapting to the conditions of weightlessness, astronauts began to work in various positions relative to the surfaces bounding the space ship. AG Nikolaev wrote: "During the meal in the ship can be in any position: up or down the legs. Example, I've always loved getting his feet on the ceiling, and sat down on the sofa Vitaly feet to the floor, fixing themselves special belts. .. We looked each other in the face, in the eyes. Accordingly our faces against each other have been turned one hundred and eighty degrees. But this situation did not prevent the food, we got used to it and quietly ate, and in between talking, smiling and laughing . On Earth, it would look just weird, but in zero gravity — quite naturally "152.
At the end of the 211-day flight Lebedev wrote in his diary, "hung in the air above the table, where he was Toll, and I think, because it must seem unusual — hang on a person over a table in the air. But as you get used to this new world of sensations it is possible that it seems natural. As if you were born in weightlessness, and consciousness does not capture unusual condition, movements and does not compare with the earth. Just as we do not think that rises when breathing chest "153.
The concepts of "up" and "nize" to the cabin, developed in the training ground, the astronauts still preserved. However, they began to use these concepts only to assess the relationship of the body to the space ship (the station) or location comrades. "Entrance to the orbital compartment — says Eliseev — like no one was there, and look — sits on the ceiling Khrunov and write something down, and in a variety of poses — head down or head up" 154. Some astronauts during long flights note changes the perception of interior space. VI Sevast'yanov after flying to the space station "Salyut" said: "On Earth, because of the permanent limit of Earth's gravity height concept was for us, as it were synonymous with difficulty … In any level of gravity height is easily reachable. Little push — and you swam to any consoles that are at various levels, "height", dived down and got what you need. Emancipation of the need to address and overcome the force of gravity helps to change the concepts of height, merging it with the notion of depth … "155 Thus, the person is able to weightlessness, based on visual perception is able to navigate, ie, to correlate the position of the body with the environment inside the cabin of the spacecraft and space station.
In our experiments on the "sticky" track revealed difficulties in orientation in the following circumstances. Once a person in weightlessness occurs relatively stable idea that the "bottom" is the track that "stand" his feet, enough for him to see in the window of the plane surface of the earth, parallel to the axis of the body, as this view is rapidly destroyed. Man begins to relate his body, not only to the geometry of the cabin, and the plane of the Earth.
In flight, depending on the location of windows and your own body in the cabin astronauts differently identify themselves with the Earth's surface. GT Coast writes: "If I" swim up "to a window perpendicular to the plane — I can see the Earth as if the top, above the head. If I have a side window, then the Earth from me on the side. And if I look through the other window at the stars, the earth below me, under my feet, "156.
Implementing orientation of the spacecraft in orbital flight, the astronaut must be clear about what position the ship to the horizon of the Earth and in what direction the aircraft. Realizing all this, and as ships in the "body scheme", it starts to make the maneuver. The orientation of the spacecraft in flight VF Bykovsky said: "After activating the manual orientation, I began to search for Earth. Looked out the window and in the" gaze. "In the" look "I could see the side edge of the horizon. I quickly realized that the window at the top right , at the zenith. I gave the handle to the right … It was immediately noticeable motion of the ship … Nordic Earth "look", I oriented the ship "in the landing" … " 157
March 18, 1965 to orbit the Earth was the spacecraft "Voskhod-2". During the flight, Leonov left the spacecraft and planned research performed in the open space, which was a new stage in the exploration of space. The formulation of this experiment was dictated by the need to solve many promising scientific and practical problems (conduct visual inspection of space ships and space stations, replacement and repair of equipment on the surface of the aircraft, assembly (mounting) in orbit long heavy orbital stations, rescue crew in distress, and etc.).
If a person in a spaceship with view relates the position of the body in space with the geometry of the room, when you exit the ship, he faces not only unsupported condition, but with maloorientirovannym ("bezorientirovannym") space. In this situation, lost all the tactile and muscular-articular sensations arising from contact with individual parts and areas of support in the cockpit. In the open space nerve impulses coming from the muscle-joint system and skin receptors, do not allow a representation of the spatial relation of the body to the astronaut surrounding objects. Therefore, when you exit the ship in man "destroyed" the psychological idea of their position relative to the car, based on the visual, tactile, musculo-articular sensations, and it should move to a completely new orientation, "relying" only on visual perception of "floating" of the Earth flying ship, the stars and the sun. All these visually perceived objects do not allow to create a familiar life on Earth coordinate system, which clearly perceived "top" and "bottom", the horizontal and vertical. That is why the main task at the exit of man into outer space and its implementation of a wide range of business operations is to study the possibility to navigate in "bezorientirovannom" space. In addition, the astronaut had to characterize this space with subjective positions and evaluate the rationality of the coordinate system, developed during training.
Because of the novelty and complexity of the problem as in the scientific, technical, and medical and psychological preparation for the flight crew "Voskhod-2" was significantly different from the previous training of the crews of ships. In order to provide orientation in space jointly with AA Leonov has developed a system of coordinates in which as one of the strongholds of the ship was taken to its longitudinal and transverse axes. In this system, the ship as it was at the "bottom." In preparation for flight, was created several dozen schemes, which were worked out various options for determining the position of an astronaut in space relative to the support-free ship, the Sun and the Earth. For special training in the aircraft-laboratory mock spaceship refined and anchored a psychological view that the "bottom" is the ship.
Is the story Leonov of the departure "bezorientirovannoe" space during space flight: "Move the ship had about flying with space velocity of the rotating Earth. Wastes from the ship carried back, and approaches — head forward, arms outstretched to prevent strike porthole of a ship or pressurized helmet "sprawled" over the ship, as in a free fall over the Earth with a parachute jump. Moving to navigate in space on a moving vehicle and "worthwhile" Sun, which was over the head or behind the back. Having one of waste as a result of inaccurate repulsion from the spacecraft occurred sophisticated twist around the transverse and longitudinal axis of the body. began to swim before his eyes unblinking stars on a dark purple with a transition into the bottomless black velvet sky … During the rotation, but the ship and could not be seen, the idea of the location of preserved completely and disorientation were observed. To remember every moment where the ship (when it's not visible), I had to act like a mental gasket your route, given the angle at which the ship departed from, how many degrees turned. The complex psychological views that provide orientation, included the figurative representation of the geometrical relationship between the currently visible heavenly bodies (stars and the Sun), the Earth, and the invisible ship. A good guideline is also the rope when he was fully stretched. should be noted that, despite the many training fully automated coordinate concepts of space, in which the bottom — the ship did not happen. However, the proposed method of orientation will help you set mission "158.
American program "Gemini" continued in the Soviet Union started investigating the possibilities of human activities in outer space. The first American astronaut to walk in space, was D. White. During the flight, "Gemini 4" did it three times out, when the ship was flying over the illuminated side of the Earth. White was tested manual jet device stabilize the body in space, the use of compressed air. Astronaut noted difficulties in orientation "bezorientirovannom" space. Task astronaut Cernan during flight "Gemini-9" was maneuvering in space with backpack setup, which could support a predetermined position of the body in space automatically or manually operated. He also noted the difficulties in orientation "bezorientirovannom" space, and the experiment ended prematurely due to overheating of the body and fogging the window of pressurized helmet.
These observations and studies have shown that in the absence of the umbilical cord and navigation instruments focus on the high support-free space, carried out only with the help of view, it is extremely difficult. That's why today during spacewalk of space station operations for repair, replacement of scientific equipment, etc., cosmonauts and astronauts are not detached from the outer skin of flying spacecraft, and moved with his hands on special rail. To free your hands during assembly operations account with the help of special devices to fix themselves to the workplace.
From the experimental data and introspection astronauts that in weightlessness occurs between analyzers different ratio than on Earth. The main importance is the vision, tactile and muscle-joint sense and less — signals from the otolith apparatus. This new feature analyzer system allows for the orientation of man in space.