In recent years, decided on a very topical educational aim – the formation of psychosocial competence of the younger generation, namely, the ability to operate effectively in daily life, meet its requirements and changes, that is, maintain a high level of mental activity and adequately communicate with others in different, including extreme situations.
To solve this problem it is necessary to form and develop in children the vital skills. These should include the ability to:
make decisions and solve problem situations, critical thinking, creative thinking;
put yourself in the other person, to cope with stress and emotions; positively communicate with others, to realize their potential.
The development of these skills contributes to the formation of the child self-esteem, their own system of ethical values, as well as instilling in him a sense of responsibility for their actions and deeds.
The formation and development of the above skills can only be in a practice of children. This activity should help the teacher and the child to exercise and build on these qualities and skills in the practice and communication of children in the group.
The most universal type of activity in this case is the safety instruction for children.
Given the fact that the tourist activity is the most effective on the issue of integrated education of children, it is logical to focus on teaching children to behave safely in the environment. Better start learning to develop friendly tourist and skills as the main guarantor of safe behavior and then, with the improvement of these skills, you can turn to the study of behavior in extreme situations.
Depending on the type of activity, habits and lifestyles are several possible options for extreme weather situations that threaten human in the modern world. First of all, such a risk can be for people whose profession is directly related to the presence in the environment: it is not only the geologists, archaeologists, hunters, trappers, and long distance drivers, soldiers, farmers and other permanent direct contact with nature, On the one hand, has a beneficial effect on the human being as tempering and obscheozdoravlivayuschy factor, on the other hand, raises addictive natural environment, which is perceived to be safe.
Risk of being in an emergency situation increases for people who have to change the habitual residence. Changing climatic conditions leads mainly to changes in the functioning of the body related to the violation of the daily regime, dietary practices, water quality, etc. These changes are much worse in the case of insufficient training or poor equipment. And this applies not only to people whose profession is associated with frequent moving (soldiers, builders), but also to the people who go to a rest from the north to the south, from the plain to the mountains or other unusual areas for them.
Thus, a traveler or a tourist who uses water from an untrusted source, runs the risk of poisoning is so serious that it can make a threat to his life, especially if it occurs in a remote area of the dwelling, where hope for the provision of skilled care is practically zero.
There are times when the human impact on nature leads to disruption of the ecological balance. But the most dangerous is the situation of autonomy, forced or voluntary. People left to nature alone, are affected not only natural (temperature, humidity, solar radiation, etc.), and psychogenic factors (fear, loneliness and creates a state of stress, the most dangerous for a person who necessary in this situation to be collected, to act quickly and decisively.)
Especially the situation of forced autonomy is that they can be anyone, as in the case of a vehicle accident in a remote area, and in the most mundane situations of loss of orientation in a suburban forest, if at hand was not any matches, no compass, no margin products.
Autonomous existence in the environment – one of the most common types of emergency situations. The main difficulty that arises in this case – the lack of help from the outside, even if such a situation was not one person but a group. For it may be that no one from the group that arrived in conditions of forced autonomy does not have sufficient skills to survive. And if this will add to and lack of communication skills, inability to work in a team, the situation could escalate to a dangerous limit.
Tourism training is better than any other kind of purposeful learning activities can prepare their children for adequate behavior and correct actions in an autonomous existence.
First, tourism activities allow children to develop skills and gain self-service. At the same time aware of the fact that in a hike their welfare depends on them: on the skills to choose the right clothes, put things in a backpack, cook, keep clothes and shoes in order.
Secondly, in the campaigns, children learn about the factors that affect a person in the environment, and learn to properly confront them and use them.
Third, the preparation of campaigns, during which they occurred, children learn about the peculiarities of the nature of his native land, learn to distinguish between edible and inedible (poisonous), plants, fungi, get information on terrain, main roads, drainage, etc.
Fourth, in the campaigns, children learn to overcome the complexity of transition duration, prolonged exercise, inconvenience cruising life.
Fifth, in a campaign faster than in any other environment, children learn the price of friendship and mutual assistance. They deliberate approach to the fulfillment of any order, knowing that it affects the well-being of all members of the group. There motto is "One for all and all for one" is quite understandable and justified.
Finally, the sixth, the child has mastered the skills of tourism, is less likely to get into a situation of loss of orientation. He knows how to behave before and during the walk, do not go alone in an unfamiliar forest, without telling their parents.
That is why training on survival in extreme situations of the environment, we start with learning the basics of the tourist life, a technique for overcoming the obstacles of orienteering. Mastering these skills will allow the student to imagine a better location features in the environment, it will equip abilities and skills necessary for teaching children.
It is assumed that focusing education and upbringing and training process will focus on four main tasks.
1. Creating favorable conditions for the development of amateur children: initiatives, creativity, responsibility and fulfillment of the individual in achieving socially valuable and personally meaningful goals.
2. Moral and volitional training in the implementation of job each member of the group overcome the particular difficulties (survival factors) that arise in emergency situations.
3. Formation of multiple personality.
4. Physical training and education tools tourism.
To effectively Learning, life skills necessary to organize practical activities students primarily on the ground, in direct contact with the natural environment during the training hikes, fees, events, expeditions and travels. It should be an intellectual aspect of tourism and sports education, the close connection between physical and mental development, their interdependence.
The process of the successful development of life skills is inextricably linked with active mental and physical activity of the students, individually and collectively in the group during the preparation and conduct of campaigns and competitions. Pupils must be brought actively participate in the design, analysis and implementation of actions to deal with tactical and technical problems of behavior in extreme situations.