Wild edible plants. Part 1

ramsonFrom very ancient times, people used to make a variety of dishes of wild plants. In looking unsightly leaves, shoots, flowers and roots of wild plants are almost all essential substances and chemicals. They are primarily carbohydrates, mineral salts, organic acids, vitamins and other biologically active substances that can replenish spent energy, restore and regulate the body the blood supply, stimulate the brain, heart, digestive and excretory functions. Every plant, be it a tree or a blade of grass has its, its specific impact on people, sharing with them the vital juices.

Before you can use wild plants for food, make sure they are edible, nutritional value and quality. Many plants have medicinal properties. They need to know and be sure to enjoy. But we should not have some plants in large quantities in order to avoid allergies or poisoning. Harvesters must be cleaned of rubbish and they are small insects, as well as thoroughly clean out the earth and dust.Roots and other underground parts of plants. These starchy edible parts of plants are tubers, roots, stems and bulbs.

Tubers. All tubers are underground and they need to dig. Before eating them should boil or fry.

The roots and rhizomes. These parts of the plant are natural stores of nutrients, they are rich in starch. Edible roots often have a length of several tens of centimeters, but do not have a spherical shape, as tubers.

Bulbs. Bulbs, plants are very rich in starch. In addition to wild onions, they are tasty, if they boil.

Shoots and stems of many plants are edible. They can be eaten raw, although many shoots taste better when they cook in boiling water for 10 minutes, then pour off the water and then cook until until they are soft enough.

Foliage. Plants with edible leaves are perhaps the most numerous of all the edible plants. They can be eaten raw or boiled form, but with a very long boiling or roasting destroys many vitamins they contain.

Nutritional and medicinal properties of plants
This section provides information on the nutritional and medicinal properties of some wild plants and berries that will help you in your fight for survival.

Amaranth (amaranth). Annual herb with a strong, branched stems 20-80 cm tall, densely covered with short soft hairs. The leaves are oblong-ovate, on long stalks. The flowers are small, inconspicuous, yellowish or grayish-green, sometimes reddish, collected in spike-paniculate inflorescence. Are abundant near the railways.

The leaves of amaranth lot of vitamin C, nitrogen-containing compounds in the seeds — protein, starch and fat oil. The young leaves and shoots are used as food both fresh and cooked. In addition, the food suitable seeds that can be cooked grits and flour.

Bamboo. It grows in moist areas in the south temperate zone and in the tropics. Occur in areas cleared for the soil, around the abandoned gardens, forests, along rivers and streams. Bamboo like corn and sugar cane, and it's easy to learn, as it is known to all for fishing rod. Mature bamboo stems are very tough and woody, but the young shoots are very tender and juicy. Cut off these shoots, cook and eat their soft tops. Cut the stems have a bitter taste, but if you change the water when cooking, the bitterness is reduced. Before eating, remove rough shell around the stem. The seeds are edible flowering bamboo. Mash them into a powder, add water and cook the mixture of bread, or boil the rice grain.

Baobab. This tree is found in open, scrubby plains of tropical Africa. Baobab can be found on the trunk, which reached a girth enormous size, and at a relatively low altitude. A mature tree height of about 18 m can have a trunk diameter of 9 m Blooms large white flowers about 7.5 cm in diameter, freely hanging from the tree. In place of flowers form a mealy fruit, the pulp which contains numerous seeds. These seeds are edible, and the leaves can be used as soup vegetables.

Calla palustris. A perennial herbaceous plant 30-40 cm is found everywhere in the swamps and along rivers and lakes, swamp forests. The fruits, leaves and other plant parts, especially roots, containing up to 30% starch, fresh very poisonous, but in ancient times, man has learned to set them free from harmful substances and for food. Sufficiently dried rhizome, then boil it, and all the bitterness, and with it the toxins out the broth. Late fall or early spring, they accumulate the maximum amount of nutrients.

From the rhizomes of calla get a very good meal. For this svezhevykopannye well washed roots cut into strips and dry outdoors in the sun, finally dosushit on fire, then grind into flour. For removal of toxic and other harmful substances resulting "flour" pour hot water in a ratio of 5 liters per 1 kg of flour, stand 3-5 hours, then poured into water, and the resulting mass is dried and twice again pour the same amount of hot water and dried twice. After this, the flour used to make a variety of dishes and baked goods. Bread of calla turns lush and delicious. No wonder the people of this plant is called breadbasket.

Siberian cow parsnip. Perennial herb up to 2 m are found everywhere in the wastelands, edges of woods, along roads, in damp meadows.

In the food consumed young stems, leaves and roots. Stalks taste like cucumbers, they are used raw, boiled and fried in oil. Decoction of the peeled stalks like chicken broth. The young and tender leaves taste like carrots. Rhizome of sweet taste and caloric substitute for garden vegetables. All that can be eaten raw and exposed to heat treatment.

Water chestnut (rogulnik floating chilim). Settlement of primitive man found in those lakes where chilim grew. In ancient times, in the era of pile dwellings, was one of the main sources of supply. But now it has spread all over the world: India, China, Kazakhstan, in the south and the north of Europe, America, Africa, Australia. Homeland water chestnut — Asia. Plant freely floating on rivers, lakes and ponds. Wherever water chestnut grows, it covers large areas. The plant has two types of leaves: submerged leaves, long, feather-like roots, and floating, which form on the surface of the water outlet. Nuts that grow under water, reach 2.5-5 cm in diameter and covered with hard spines, which give them the appearance of horned bull. Broken it hard shell nuts chilim, seen in the middle of a large white kernel.

Water chestnut is a delicious and nutritious. It is eaten raw, boiled in salted water or baked in the ashes like potatoes. Chilim can grind in cereals and flour from which to bake bread, can be eaten with salt and pepper, and cook soup. It can be used as a remedy for dysentery.

Highlander serpentine (coil). Perennial herb up to 1.2 m with a short curved serpentine rhizome. Found everywhere in the water meadows and thickets. The rhizomes contain tannins and coloring matter, starch, vitamin C, carotene, organic acids. In the aerial parts of the plant a lot of vitamin C and other nutrients.

Highlander snake is used in medicine as an astringent for diarrhea and dysentery, externally for lotions on bleeding wounds, ulcers, abscesses. The diet can be used mainly young shoots and leaves, which after removal

secondary veins boiled, eaten raw or dried. And roots are edible, but because of the very high content of tannins they should first soak. Rhizomes are fried or dried and ground into flour, which can be used for baking bread or cakes.

Peas Mouse. Perennial herb with leafy stems climbing up to 1.5 meters are very common, everywhere in meadows, fields, along roads and housing, in the bushes, in the woods and in fields as a weed. In many countries in the lean years the local population had used its seeds in food: they were ground, prepared meal, which was added to the regular flour for bread-making, of which were also obtained for cereals and cereal pohlebok. The seeds taste like lentils.

Wild Pumpkin. This plant is a member of the family of pumpkins and growing like a watermelon, cantaloupe (cantaloupe) and cucumbers. Widely cultivated in the tropics, wild pumpkin can be found on the site of the abandoned gardens or in areas cleared for cultivation. Wild pumpkin vine has leaves that reach across 7,5-20 cm fruit cylindrical, smooth and full of seeds. Boil and eat wild fruits polusozrevshie pumpkins, eat as soft stems, flowers and young leaves, after their decoctions. The seeds can be roasted and eaten like peanuts.

Wild desert gourd. This creeper (also member of the family of pumpkins) grows in the Sahara and the Arabian desert on the southeast coast of India. Forms a rod length of 2.5-3 m, creeping along the ground; fruit grows to the size of an orange, contains seeds that are edible, if fry or boil. For food, you can also use this pumpkin flowers and succulent shoots.

Wild figs. In humid tropical and subtropical regions of growing more than 800 varieties of wild figs. It is an evergreen plant with large hard leaves. Look for a tree with long roots that grow directly from the trunk and branches, abandoned gardens, along roads and in fields. The fruits grow directly from the branches and the shape of a pear. Fruits of the many varieties of this plant is very tough, fibrous and covered with irritating hairs, they can not be eaten. Edible species when ripen, become soft, almost no hair, and there are green, red, or black.

Wild potato or arrowhead. Potatoes spread everywhere and every nation believes it has long been known native plant. But there is a wild potato. It grows along the banks of ponds and rivers. It is difficult to confuse with other plants. Is a water arrow, or arrowhead. Leaves it as an arrow sticking out of the water. On the stem — inflorescence of white flowers. Below the inflorescence form fruit — green beads coated with multiple spikes. But edible tubers the size of a walnut, located at the ends of roots under water. They are less watery and much richer in starch than potatoes.

Fresh arrowhead tubers taste of raw nuts, boiled peas resemble, and baked — just like potatoes. The tubers can be cut into slices, strung on a rope and dry, like mushrooms. From dried tubers can make flour.

Wild onion and garlic. Ancient Romans include onions and garlic in the ration of his legions, believing that their use in food increases the strength and courage of the soldiers. Kept saying at the time: "Garlic inflames the heart of the hero, when his oledenyaet cold." In the Middle Ages, many warriors wore amulets on his chest, which was attributed to the magic power to prevent the war from the arrows and the sword. Usually the role performed amulet modest onion wild onion or garlic.

In the old medical reference garlic was considered a cure for many diseases, "Who eats garlic, do not grow inside of boils or other similar topics, Inasmuch mokrost Inner destroys. Garlic and cook for another crush and put to chiryam on the body and to other sores, koi are no top, then pus displays and opens; koi juice Chesnokov anoints the head, then the lice and nits die and Vlas color stronger. " During the First World War, garlic juice, diluted with water, used in the treatment of wounds. They speak about the qualities of the bow, "Bow enjoyable womb softer, but the spirit and thirst leads filthy mouth destroys."

In the East, there was a saying: "Luke, in your arms is all sickness," and our ancestors Slavs said: "Bow of seven illness." Enough for three minutes to chew onion or garlic to kill the bacteria in the mouth.

Onions and garlic help to digest meat and fatty foods. Look for onions in the forest, meadow and river valleys. Recognize it in the first place by the characteristic smell. Leaves his fistulose, light green and shiny. Flowering plant has pink umbrellas spherical inflorescences. This is wild onions — or scorodite. In sandy soil or on rocky slopes catches Bow uglasty or Mouse garlic, with pink and purple blossoms, angular bottom leaves and onions sitting on a creeping rhizome.

In the woods you can find one more valuable kind of onion — wild garlic. He inflorescence with white flowers and only two wide, like a lily, leaf to stem the trihedral. The leaves of this plant and onions can be eaten raw, you can cook soup, prepare for the future, salted or dried.

Wild rhubarb. It grows in South-Eastern Europe and Asia Minor and across the mountain regions of Central Asia spreading to China. It can be found in open areas along the forest edges, streams and rivers, as well as on the slopes. Large leaves grow from the base of long thick stems. The upper part is covered with towering stalks of flowers. Stems can be cooked and eaten as vegetables.

Wild Tulip. Wild tulip found in Minor and Central Asia. Bulb of this plant can be boiled and eaten as a substitute for potatoes. Spring for a short time tulip blooms, its flowers are similar to regular garden tulips, only smaller. In the absence of red, yellow and orange as the distinguishing feature, you can find seed pods.

Wild sorrel. Very valuable plant. Look for wild sorrel in fields, roadsides, waste places and forest edges. Sorrel leaves to form similar to the spear leaf stalks reach a length of 15-30 cm Flowering very small form clusters perevidnymi colors of green or purple-red. Sorrel leaves highly nourishing: they contain protein, iron, ascorbic acid and oxalic acid. The leaves are very gentle: they can be eaten raw, and a little to the chef, got a lovely green soup.

This plant has medicinal value. Powder of the roots of sorrel good to brush your teeth to strengthen the gums. Decoction of the seeds or roots drink indigestion and as a styptic. Doctors of antiquity, Galen and Dioscorides, prescribed a decoction of rhizomes sorrel with dysentery.

Dracaena southern. This plant is found in the tropics, especially in the islands of the South Pacific. Cultivated in tropical regions of Asia. In a wild and cultivated state has a length of 2 to 4.5 m has a big rough tough shiny leaves growing tufts at the ends of the thick stems. The leaves are green, sometimes reddish. Large flowers form clusters that usually hang down. After ripening berries are red. Fleshy rhizome is rich in starch, edible. That it becomes more delicious, it should bake.

Common oak. A large green tree up to 40 m and more solid with leathery leaves and small inconspicuous flowers in rare pendant earrings. Found everywhere in the forests of Europe and western Siberia.

The diet used acorns. Of them from ancient times did the flour, groats. You can add the flour, baking bread, cakes, pancakes. Roasted acorns suitable for tea instead of crackers. To make a meal, you need to cut the acorns, pre-clearing of the skin, to fill in for two days with water (change it 3-4 times a day). Then drain the water, add new water in the ratio 1:2 and heat to boiling. Wet and warm grind acorns, spread a thin layer and dried in the air or in the oven. Acorn prepared coffee substitutes. To do this they parch and mixed with an equal portion of the roasted grains of rye, barley, oats, wheat, added for flavor chicory and dandelion roots.

With the purpose of treatment, you can use a decoction of oak bark (50 g of powdered bark in 1 liter of boiling water) to rinse the mouth and throat, wash festering wounds, skin diseases. Medical importance are the Gauls (nuts on the leaves of oak). Their broth is used to rinse the gums in scurvy, for washing the hair diseases hair lotion for burns. Dried powder is used to treat gall herpes, eczema, they sprinkled the sores.

Papaya (papaya). This tree grows in tropical countries, especially in wet areas. Occurs in cleared fields, around abandoned villages, and in full sun areas of uninhabited jungle. Papaya tree reaches a height of 1,8-6 m and has a soft hollow trunk, which will break under your weight, if you try to get on it. Papaya tree trunk rough, and the leaves grow at its apex. Yellow or green fruit in the form of pumpkin leaves and grow under them straight from the barrel. They are rich in vitamin C and can be eaten raw, boiled or roasted. Contained in the unripe fruit latex well softens meat if it rubbed juice. Try to keep the juice of papaya tree did not get in eyes: it causes severe pain and temporary, and sometimes irreversible blindness. Young leaves, flowers and stems of the papaya are also edible. Boil them thoroughly, changing the water at least twice.

Starry average (woodlouse). Annual herb with a delicate, lying, gnarled stems up to 30 cm, small ovate, pointed leaves and small single white flowers on long stalks. Growing in fallow fields, gardens, vacant lots, near housing and roads. The plant contains a lot of vitamins C, E, carotene, saponins, etc. The food using fresh herb Chickweed. From it you can cook soup, salad.

St. John's wort. Perennial herb up to 30-60 cm in height. Stem is erect, branched above. The flowers are golden yellow with black and brown dots on the underside of the petals are collected in the panicle. It grows in meadows, forest edges, on dry slopes and shrubs in dry coniferous and mixed forests.

In St. John's people are called "grass of 99 diseases." Recommend that people commonly use this plant for the preparation of therapeutic tea — 10 g of St. John's wort for 250 ml of water. Drink a glass 2-3 times a day. Infusion grass linseed oil is used for lubrication of burns, wounds, abscesses. Pounded fresh grass is applied to bruises, wounds, ulcers.

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