Siberia is not time to develop. Since the XVI century Russian pioneers moved to the Urals, and lived in the wilderness, off-road, in a small village of a few houses. Their habitation in those early centuries almost no evidence, and we can learn about them only to archeology. In some cases, the life and health of the Siberian pioneers can be reconstructed by examining their disposal.
The results of these studies in conjunction with the data of archeology, ethnography, geochemistry, geology and paleodemography, knowledge about the climate, flora and fauna can better imagine how the first settlers adapted to the new conditions. Specialists of Omsk State University. FM Dostoevsky and the Institute of Northern Development, Russian Academy of Sciences analyzed the remains of Russian pioneers, found during archaeological excavations Ananyino complex I, located near the village of Catherine Tarski Omsk region. Life in the old-timers Irtysh was not easy.
General view of the burial
One of the first written mention of the village Ananyino refers to 1624, when there were only two yards. In 1701, according to the Russian State Archive of Ancient Acts in Ananyina lived archers, Cossacks and Cossack sons Fletcher, a native of "Tarski city," but with arable land, pastures and hayfields Pashennoye as close to the village and the lake Ananyina and up the Irtysh River and Nyuholovke. Described the village, traveling to Siberia Gerhard Friedrich Müller: «Aijiuk-buren, in Russian Anangino lake on the east side, one and a half miles from the shore. A 3 mile in circumference and the source of the Irtysh near the previous village. Previous village — it Uruklar, or Ruklar-aul, or top of the yurt (now the village of Catherine). In this lake flows into another river Kapcal, which occurs in 6 miles out of the swamp. On the lake there is a Russian village Anangina that gave him a Russian name. " Then the village disappeared when — is unknown. But remained funerary complex, which Russian researchers started digging in 2005. "Researched and published funerary complexes of the first settlers in the Russian Siberia little of the material published only in 2012," — said in an interview with the head of works STRF.ru assistant professor of prehistory at Omsk State University Larissa Tataurova.
The cemetery is not yet fully excavated. At the disposal of the researchers are still 10 men, 5 women and 33 children's skeletons, mostly well preserved. On the bones of children traces of inflammation and injury. Adult skeletons examined in more detail.
Pseudoarthrosis of the ulna and posttraumatic deformity of the radius
Scientists have found two cases of benign bone tumors (malignant find very difficult, because it is rapidly destroyed in the ground) and a few defects that do not interfere with life. All adults with spinal cord injuries, including ligament ossification, deforming arthrosis of the vertebrae, but most — osteochondrosis, which scientists have found in all fifteen adults. According to researchers, this time low back pain was a common disease, they, for example, residents have suffered Verkhoturye and Irkutsk. In four men joints affected by arthrosis, especially knee and shoulder. Three of heavily abraded joints of the hands and feet, obviously, their owners have experienced great exercise.
Six men broken bones: arms, ribs, and several at the sternum (apparently someone hit directly into the bone), and even the right parietal bone of the skull. This man was hit from behind on the head with a blunt object, but the fracture merged. The causes of these injuries are accidental injury, such as a fall from a horse, and fighting. Of adult men and teenagers did not lag behind. One of them has an elongated groove on the right parietal bone — a trace of chopped head wound or fracture of the parietal bone.
Researchers note that the broken ribs and bones of the skull are a marker of aggressiveness and unfavorable social climate in the population. In Ananyina lived archers, Cossacks and service people, their life was hard and not peaceful. Unfortunately, research paleopatologicheskih inhabitants of European Russia XVII-XVIII centuries, there is little, so the situation prevailing at that time in the Irtysh, nothing to compare.
Researchers continue to work, they plan to more fully reconstruct the life of the Siberian old. "This year we're going to do a comparative anthropological analysis of the Russian and aboriginal people", — said Larisa Tataurova.
This work was supported by the Ministry of Education and Science.
Source of information:
SM Slepchenko, LV Tataurova "Paleopathology at Russian pioneers Tarski Irtysh (after burial Ananyino I)». Bulletin of Archaeology, Anthropology and Ethnography, 2012, № 3 (18), 92