10 Февраль 2013 | The survival encyclopedia


The scientists adjusted the date of the end of the world: a 21 th and 23 th December

Russian scientists have found that the original Mayan calendar ended with a 21 and 23 December 2012. Just later that date was moved to the winter solstice for the convenience of astronomical calculations. The researchers also refuted the popular theory that the end of the Mayan calendar means the death of all life on Earth. "Moreover, do nothing at all about the Mayan end of the world did not say," - says Galina Yershova, Professor, Russian State University for the Humanities and the President of the Russian-Guatemalan Maya Center for Research Yuri Knorozov.Note that it is Yu.Knorozov, Read more [...]
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Scientists have figured out how to decipher the DNA of a single cell

Genome of plants and animals - is not new. However, there is a caveat - this process will take a lot of the body's cells - thousands and millions - after deciphering which scientists are generalized, and therefore, inaccurate views of the genome. Judge the changes in the DNA of individual cells can result. Harvard scientists have found a new way to decode the genome of the individual cells, according to an article on the website Nature. To do this, first get multiple copies of DNA. Existing methods, including using the polymerase chain reaction, are imperfect. They lead to the fact that Read more [...]
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A new type of human cell division

Many types of malignant tumors tend to increase the number of times the event of chromosomes in a cell or polyploidy. It is known that, for example, at 14 and 35 percent of breast cancer and gastric cancer, respectively, have a triple or multiple set. (Recall that the normal cells of the human body have a double set of chromosomes). The basis of this phenomenon is a violation of the normal process of cell division - mitosis. Usually precedes mitosis phase synthesis, in which there is a doubling of the genetic material (copy of all forms of cellular components). After that, as a result of mitosis Read more [...]
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In the retina of the eye found yet another encoding cell

In the company of ganglion cells of the retina, which can pre-digitization of visual information, the researchers added another and some bipolar cells, which are found in the same capacity for the initial encoding of visual stimuli.Retina - this is not just a mediator between the environment and the brain, not just a set of photosensitive elements, which transmits the analysis center everything feels. Retina also deals with some "creative work": it analyzes the intensity of light, its direction, determines where the edge of the picture. For information about these options, you want Read more [...]
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Russian scientists have heard the response of the Earth to an attack from space

A new way to predict earthquakes - the acoustic signals generated by cosmic ray muons - offered scientists Physics Institute. PN Lebedev Physical Institute. First experiments carried out in the Tien Shan mountain research station near the city of Almaty, showed that cosmic rays can be seen as a tool to identify anomalous seismic intensity environment of this nature.Tien Shan mountain scientific station of LPI. It is here verified new concept searching for earthquake precursors based on detection of abnormal stress in the acoustic response acted upon penetrating cosmic ray particlesThe Read more [...]
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Scientists have figured out how to edit this reality, wearing a cloak of space-time

Metamaterials future will allow us to "edit" reality. Making incarnate event, wearing a cloak of events (a cloak of space-time) can be: at the heart of this idea is the ability to play with the particles of light, creating the illusion of perception. Physics Martin McCall and Paul Kinsler said about the idea at the February Physics World.Both spatial and space-time cloak a common technique known as "transformation optics." The principle is simple: the designer can decide which path will be the light before it gets into the eye of the observer, and on this basis develop appropriate Read more [...]
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Russian scientists have named five reasons of bad roads

Become aware of the most common causes of poor quality of roads. Staff conducted a study of the Perm branch of FSUE "ROSDORNII."One reason for the low quality of roads - the latest announcement of tender procedures. They often start with the release of the track asphalt. As a result, contracts are placed poorly, but the construction is being delayed and in torrential rain and snowfall. 2 reasons experts believe low-quality selection of contractors. To change this situation, it is necessary to extend the qualification requirements to enter contests and pre-qualified contractors. It Read more [...]
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Scientists have proved that men do not report to the meat

Their portions are smaller than normal by as much as 170 grams. Men need to almost double the recommended rate of meat. To such conclusion experts at McMaster University in London. They conducted research related physical activity and maintaining muscle mass middle-aged men and found that the maintenance of the body in the best shape you want to increase the amount of meat in the diet up to 170 grams.In fact, the increased portion of meat - a new look at the product as a tool that can prolong youth. After all, with the age of the human body tend to lose muscle mass. Because researchers and Read more [...]
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Blood groups have for virus protection

Scientists believe the University of Bath, a person could buy the enzymes that determine the blood group of bacteria - they were necessary to prevent the spread of viruses in the population. Red blood cells in the blood covered the carbohydrate structure called glyco-antigens. The phenotype of these antigens determine blood group system AB0. A-positive people have antibodies that oppose glycoprotein antigens of B, B-positive have anti-A and anti-0, 0-positive - the anti-A and anti-B. These antibodies do not exist at the beginning of the formation of the body, and appear with the intestinal bacteria Read more [...]
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How the brain sees category

When we look at an object, then immediately determine its properties. For example, we see an athlete - and we understand that this is a "person", "woman" and, say, "Finally, just beautiful." These categories can be a great multitude, and in addition, the objects and actions can have very different set of these categories. Scientists have long wanted to find out how the brain sees such generic properties.Until now it was thought that the brain under each category use its own zone, which is raised every time a person sees something with this feature. However, researchers Read more [...]
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Tomsk scientists will display hardy bees

Tomsk scientists is important to bring these bees, that they "were not evil to endure the harsh conditions of Siberia good to forage harvested not only for the beekeeper, but also for myself."Small innovative company LLC "ApiMaster" created at the Tomsk State University (TSU), will bee breeding winter-hardy, adapted to harsh conditions of Siberia, RIA Novosti reported at the university on Thursday.The university noted that the project in the region will be able to revive beekeeping. According to scientists, the Tomsk region - a successful area for honey: honey timber is Read more [...]
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Nobel winner predicts the date of the start of mass human cloning

One of the recipients of the highest honor in the world of science has become this year's British biologist John Gerdon. In addition to his other achievements Gerdona can be called "grandfather" of the famous Dolly the sheep. Scientists believe that human cloning will begin in the near future.The birth in 1996, the first animal genetic copy - the famous Dolly the sheep, has revolutionized the world of science. Its "fathers" were Scottish scientists who are able to implant the nucleus of a somatic cell into an egg.And John Gerdona (John Gurdon), Nobel Prize winner 2012 Read more [...]
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British scientists have proved the futility of IQ-tests

The authors note that the indicators of intellectual abilities vary from a minimum of three components - a short-term memory, the ability to reason logically, as well as the verbal component.Popular and widely used standard IQ tests do not correctly reflect the level of intellectual abilities, as they depend on a number of different sub-systems of the brain - the conclusion made by the British and Canadian scientists on the basis of large-scale experiment with over 100,000 volunteers. History tests for "intelligence quotient" - IQ (intelligence quotient) - began in 1904, when the British Read more [...]
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Scientists look for life in the volcanic waters of Antarctica

A team of scientists from various universities and research organizations in Great Britain went on an expedition to the coast of Antarctica on a research vessel "James Cook". The expedition - the study of hydrothermal vents, calderas and cold springs, located at a depth of more than three kilometers below the surface. Mostly slum community of scientists interested in the seabed south of the South Sandwich Islands, where the complex tectonic system, according to the portal "Science Daily." With the help of Isis experts hope to understand how these creatures survive near the Read more [...]
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End of the world will suit man's best friend

British scientists have debated where to begin a real apocalypse. Destruction of mankind begins with Fox that will distributors cancer. Fox will bite dogs, those - people, all get sick and die.Scientists do not tend to believe that on December 21 will come doomsday, indicating either that the Maya just ended on that date, calendar, or the fact that the drafters had in mind something quite different. At the same time, they admit that life on Earth may die. Among the likely killer of all life - a comet, supervolcano and dogs, writes Daily Mail. According to the script, which offers an astrophysicist Read more [...]
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Scientists: human hand evolved for war

American scientists have discovered that the human hand has evolved not only as how to create and use various items. This process was also influenced by a fight with fists. Evolutionary scientists from the University of Utah believe that natural selection was moving in the direction of the hands of the appearance, which can be used as a weapon, and that aggressiveness played a major role in human development than previously thought. The structure of the human hand makes it easy to compress it into a fist, which does not occur in primates, such as chimpanzees. The scientists tested their theory Read more [...]
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In the brain, found trigger suicide

U.S. neuroscientists have discovered high activity of glutamate in the brain of people who attempt suicide. Glutamate - an amino acid that is responsible for the transmission of signals between nerve cells. Scientists have long assumed that glutamate may be associated with depression and is one of the chemical reasons causing it, reports Science Daily. New research has not only confirmed these conjectures, but also made additional discoveries. Specialists from the University of Michigan, in collaboration with an international team of co-researchers studied the effects of glutamate in 100 patients Read more [...]
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Scientists have found an antidote to the deadly burn kubomeduzy

In an Australian species kubomeduze Chironex fleckeri enough poison to kill 60 people in just 3 minutes. Therefore, it burns two meter tentacles in most cases leads to rapid death unlucky swimmer or surfer. "According to statistics, over the past 30 years because of the poison of this being affected the most people," - says the study's author Angel Yanagihara (Angel Yanagihara), biochemist, University of Hawaii (University of Hawaii at Manoa). Deadly kubomeduza found in the waters of the ocean all the way from Australia to Vietnam. Length of ribbon-like tentacles of jellyfish reaches Read more [...]
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Genetics will create a Christmas tree that glows in the dark

19/12/2012 British geneticist at the University of Hertfordshire figured out how to use genetic engineering to make Christmas tree needles emit their own light. To do this, they're going to transplant ate two genes taken from jellyfish and fireflies. One of them is responsible for the production of green fluorescent protein, and the second produces an enzyme luciferase. Young shoots will infect a harmless bacterium that is necessary genes and incorporates them into the DNA of the tree. Then with the help of a chemical lyutseferina included in the fertilizer will be activated enzyme, which, Read more [...]
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On basic principles of the device cell

19/12/2012 Researchers have shown that in the cell there is a lot less "strange" RNA molecules than previously thought. In previous experiments, the scientists found a variety of RNA that are not involved in protein synthesis and cellular regulation. The new work shows that these RNAs were artifacts of the experiment. RNA molecules are thought to perform in the cage has two main functions: they are involved in the synthesis of proteins, and are involved in cellular regulation (in addition, they are part of some enzyme complexes with proteins). All of the RNA synthesized in the cell Read more [...]
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