"That's when Mrs. death suit noiseless feet to our head and saying" yeah ", will take the precious and still sweet life — we are probably the greatest of all about a sense of regret that we have to lose in this case. Of all the wondrous events and feelings, sprinkled with a generous hand of nature, we must have, I think, just naizhalche to part with love "- written by Mikhail Zoshchenko chapter" Love "his" Blue Book. "
Perhaps many would have acceded to these words, especially in view of the recently passed the end of the world. Many have pondered whether they liked living in the present, and how it was, and that was all. Many would want to know more, so to speak, from the people who know and independent sources. Some, we believe, would have taken in hand, say, "Romeo and Juliet", and someone would want to objective knowledge and turned in to us.
Scientists — there physiologists, biochemists, doctors — certainly interested in everything that is associated with love, and they satisfy their interest, regardless of the fact, end of the world or not. But those who turned to the scientists know what love is, it is not necessary to wait for the elevated lines, the philosophical theory or some darkly romantic sayings with a touch of higher value. Scientists, psychologists, even the air, usually slipping into a sort of unattractive, down to earth, we would say, animal themes: their speeches flashed the word "hormones", "reproduction", "offspring", and even terrible to say, "sexual selection." Is that the "sex" will comfort your looking eyes.
|Sex was. And love? (Photo by Dr. David Phillips.)|
But we leave the last sex, and start with the most that neither is far from areas of love, which, however well, something to do with it are — with sex cells and hormones. In the past year, just two groups of researchers, from the University of Saskatchewan (Canada) and New England (UK) and experimentally confirmed the old hypothesis that semen affects human females. One of the proteins of sperm, for example, accelerates ovulation and ovarian maturation, the other, called sex peptide, generally interferes with the body in virtually all females, affecting the immune system, eating behavior, vision, sexual activity, etc. The researchers say that such properties of sperm — an evolution of the "war of the sexes", when in the interest of males to mate as often as possible, but in the interest of females to be selective and not waste energy on the first got the gentleman. But one only "selfish" The effect of semen on the female body is not limited to: Scientists from the University of Adelaide (Australia) showed that semen helps women's immunity to tune in to the appearance of "foreign body" — a child. And without such contact may occur in the embryo developmental disorders provoked excessively vigilant female infants. And all this seems to be valid not only for animals but also for humans. So even understand how to behave to women: on the one hand, do not want to be influenced by the male, the other — you want to still have a healthy baby, not the patient.
|Golden brachypterous Manakin (photo reptileexperts).|
In general, the lion's share of work on the topic of gender relations is devoted to animal mating rituals. And then would exclaim: "What about love?" — If these rituals were not so similar to human tricks and techniques that we use in the most that neither is love affairs. And to see these analogies do not even have to strain your imagination too. There is not even necessary to suspect scientists in particular wish to denigrate humanity enough to read that male fruit flies, to be close to other males, females begin to vigorously solicit (just like a group of drunken men around a single lady), or as a male finches exaggerate their virtues, being in of unfamiliar females (analogy invent yourself). You can also recall, like moths, are virgins, rushing for the female, like the impatient young men who can not correctly calculate the forces and lose more experienced in male courtship. Or the males arrive at the current Manakin together with his retinue of relatives: mother puts her suitors in the most profitable male who, while the more ordinary-looking brothers, nephews, etc. is more than the winner. Or as monogamous birds to part with your partner, if the weather deteriorates around: in fact, with the autumn-winter depression clearly not love. What they say: even the people, so to speak, no stranger to creativity, can be compared with the same bowerbird that entice their Lorelei with exquisite optical illusion which no other purpose than aesthetic, has not. And for bowerbirds, for these artists, creating the illusion is more valuable than the ability to reproduce. And finally, as scientists have found the University of California in San Francisco (USA), the failure of female fruit flies mate with males declines to drink: unlucky in his personal life males literally get drunk! Analogy with human behavior suggests itself (although the researchers dug the same to neurobiological causes of this behavior — and it was, as expected, unmet system reinforcements in the brain).
|Courtly building bowerbird Chlamydera nuchalis (photo Calidris!).|
Here, of course, in the animal world there are examples of "the relationship between the sexes," which is difficult to find an analogy in the world of men, even if the strain. No matter how we try, rough sex not shorten our lives and so we will not reduce in size, as it happens, for example, some squid, and so intense sex, which is practiced by these molluscs, hardly anyone of the people available. No man in the world can not hold as a female, as do male mosquito fish — hooked through the penis, and no man in the world can not continue to intimate contact as do spiders, whose sexual organ even after the death of the male (and spider is known to love bite Knight) continues to deliver sperm into the female genital tract.
|Male and female sex giants Euprymna tasmanica in an intimate moment (photo Brendan Shepherd).|
Here we leave the animals and turn the crown of nature. This past year was very generous with his research on the effects of hormones and general physiology of human behavior, not only of marriage and love. Conflicting reports were about the male hormone testosterone on the one hand, it causes us to re-evaluate their opinions and ignore the opinions of other members of the community, that is destroying the team, on the other — it makes men more honest. Another interesting hormone oxytocin (which is also called the hormone of happiness, love, etc.), make wonderful partners of the men, both in the spiritual and the physical sense: the experiment, researchers at University of California at San Diego (USA) have shown that oxytocin enhances male emotional response and stimulates sexual desire. But scientists from the University of Bonn (Germany) found that oxytocin prevents male infidelity. What is clear: if this hormone strengthens the emotional relationship between the partners, the man will be enough of the girl, which he already has. Oxytocin was discussed earlier mainly due to motherhood, but in recent years, as you can see, there is increasing evidence that it is of great importance for the male psychology.
|Penis male G. quadruncus with hooks to hold the females (Figure Brian Langerhans / NC State University).|
As to the women, the physiological changes that start them during ovulation, drive them to more relaxed behavior, which can be seen, for example, to walk. Or on how women in this period evaluated men: as shown by the experiments of experts from the University of Texas at San Antonio (USA), during ovulation women forget about those male qualities like reliability, diligence, thriftiness, and a preference for the "bad" Playboy. What is clear: ovulation recalls major biological duty — to breed, and who are the offspring will turn out, is not so important.
Generally, evolutionary-biological patterns are surprisingly strong influence on our choice of partner and the manner of courtship, even though we wear the proud name of the genus Homo. For example, it was reported that women choose men not so much on beauty as for healthy skin tone — in fact for the future health of offspring is more important than genes, and genes of visual appeal — it is, a luxury. Flirting, women are known to love to torture their boyfriends, showing them benign neglect, indifference, etc. It is believed by researchers from the University of Western Sydney (Australia) and the Singapore Management University, it helps women to assess the reliability of the partner and his willingness, if that , to become the father of her children. And such a "stress test" is used mostly by women: after having a baby gets them higher price than men.
|The oxytocin spray will help strengthen the shaky relationship. (Photo by Felix Wirth.)|
Men are under pressure stress prefer fat women. Scientists explain that stress makes us look for a partner who proved on the part of finding food. Moreover, it turns out, men generally attracted to women like themselves. Exactly the same behavior can be found in animals, and it is called gomogamiey. When choosing a partner, like himself, the individual on the one hand, provides seed genes known to be reliable, the other — provides a guaranteed paternity, for if the female cub get accustomed to some other male, it can be immediately seen. (It is worth remembering at the same time as to why religion is so strict with women.) Actually, it turned out that the stability of the relations and the ability to build relationships affect the sense of smell: in people sensitive to smells, to the relationship does not matter. Although the mechanism of this effect is unknown, it is difficult to imagine a more, so to say, a biological trait in our sex-love affairs.
|The problem of red in modern sexology is not solved yet. (Photo by Schlegelmilch.)|
However, when discussing the evolutionary-biological aspects of human love, do not forget about the powerful socio-cultural factors. And sometimes they can pretty much spoil the psychosocial theories of scholars. That there is one story of the red: the sexual attraction was clearly proven, and at first it was thought that such a reaction to red inherited from the ancestors of primates, whose females in rut flushed some parts of the body, thus showing readiness to mate. However, another experiment showed that the red leather excited modern men do not touch them. Perhaps this is the case when masskulturnye factors influenced scientists and forced them to, figuratively speaking, to look where the light.
|Fat woman can always count on attention from the stress plagued men. (Photo Swim Ink / Corbis.)|
Popular culture may have influenced even the way we see each other. Thus, psychologists from Nebraskskogo University (USA) found that modern men see a woman's body in pieces. Scientists explain that the TV, advertising, film and so on dismembered body of a woman, drawing attention particularly to sexually significant areas: breasts, thighs, buttocks. This vision is in men could be explained by biological factors, but why see women as women? The influence of social stereotypes seen in the "depraved" behavior of little girls — but in this case, psychologists prefer not to talk about the harmful effects of television, and the impact of over-active mothers. The first information about the social status of his daughter learns from her mother, and the mother is not too shy daughter, arranging his personal life, and a daughter from an early age will behave the same way.
Curiously, sometimes gender stereotypes that are used in full in popular culture and which are constructed on the basis of our allegedly "purely biological" inclination to cause strong rejection by consumers. For example, the famous advertising image macho men who like women like, but the men themselves, as it turned out, this image can not stand, and use sultry guys with an ambiguous smile in a man advertising — means lower sales. Furthermore, sexy look at all can cause rejection, regardless of gender on who are watching. Sexy look from the cover of age is considered to psychologists from the University of Michigan (USA), says not only willing to "reproduce", but also about social insecurity beholder.
And finally, after a long foreplay can go to the main room of our program — just for sex. In the past, researchers have continued to search for all known (hopefully) point G, a mystical point of the female orgasm. While the first information about it is contained in the ancient Indian texts, find it "in all science" has not succeeded. Now researchers at all inclined to think that this kind of scattered diffuse structure without specific coordinates. (That is, a single search for instructions on how to clearly write will not work.) But what's the point G, where even the female orgasm still can not agree! In that sense, there is a vaginal and clitoral orgasm alone or is it the same thing? If they are different, what is the difference? The question is not afraid of this word, partly scholastic, and even modern techniques such as MRI are not yet able to make it clear. The reading volunteers and dobrovolits here, of course, should not count: hardly at such times someone will realize what it is, where and how she feels and what he did for this. Adds more confusion and the fact that some women can have an orgasm from exercise without, so to speak, with men (it is not about the exercises with different spicy devices from specialty stores).
|Where to look for the point G? (Photo WIN-Images / Corbis.)|
Some people orgasm delivers not theoretical, but a very practical problem. In the past year, researchers at the University of California in San Francisco (USA) published a paper in which he described the two new cases, when a person experiences a sharp and very strong headache exactly during orgasm. Since this is only the third and fourth of the reported cases, scientists have to be limited by accumulation of data on the subject. And a little more about the sad: excessive rasplanirovannost sex can lead to impotence. A note of the women who decide to have a child "in all-all-all the rules." One should not pester excessive sociability partner after sex: how sexologists found the University of Michigan and Albright College (both — the U.S.), the more you will crave communication, the more likely that a partner "turn and zahrapit." Generally ignore partner after sex were equally likely in both men and women.
However, scientists do not only rude and such mundane things as orgasm, natural selection, or the point G. Psychologists from Cornell University (USA), for example, came to the conclusion that random connection fraught with depression in adolescents. That is, to enjoy life, not enough to have a lot of sex: it is necessary that the sex was reinforced by the relationship — dating, flowers, kisses in the moonlight, etc. But scientists from the University of California at Davis have decided to learn more about the emotional life of a loving relationship and came to the conclusion that love is born not consent and agreement extends the life of love. That is more sustainable are those couples in which the emotional life of the same "phase" where the "minus" one partner coincides with the "minus" in the other, a "plus" — a "plus."
And finally devote a few lines of sexual deviation. More precisely, one deviation — homosexuality. However, to speak now about the "unnaturalness" of homosexuality, about his "contrary to nature" does not account for all practitioners know about unconventional sexual orientation of penguins, swans, gulls, monkeys, etc., etc. And yet, in us, apparently sewn into a special mechanism that can distinguish a gay or lesbian, or by naturalization naturalki: our brain goes into it is just 50 milliseconds. Obviously, the ability to distinguish one from the other is a biological sense — for example, not to be mistaken with a partner to reproduce. But this mechanism, although super-fast, yet not quite accurate. A more accurate method that can be used to determine the orientation, suggested researchers at Cornell University. Constructed of the phone can determine sexual orientation at the time of excitation dilated pupils. In general, the researchers believe the College Albright, outwardly-naturals wave is definitely different from straight people: the last person is more symmetrical than that of gays and lesbians.
|To determine the sexual orientation of the person you need to look at his face. (Photo P Deliss / Godong.)|
Speaking of homosexuality, it is impossible to pass by homophobia. Scientists believe the University of Rochester (UK) and the University of California, Santa Barbara (USA), people are attacking homosexuals not because hot commitment to traditional family values, but because they themselves would be happy to try "it." About traditional family values have homophobes just not going smoothly: most of their growing in a very authoritarian families where only one hint that you are "not like everyone else" could lead to severe penalties. So homophobia — the same as homosexuals, but fearing daddy anger. Emphasize that this is not about sexual orientation, Samoa, and the relation to it, the person can be straight and practice the "traditional family values" do not hunt with the "infidels."
But where did taken unconventional sexual orientation? Primatologists at Emory University (USA) and St. Andrews University (UK), who observed the bonobos, believe that it is a way to make a career. Female, having sex with a high-ranking female, notifies all others: to her it means an increase in the social hierarchy. (The ability to draw parallels with human society — and not just in the sense of homosexual relationships — leave the reader.) On the other hand, the experiments of zoologists from the University of Frankfurt (Germany) have shown that homosexuality can be a tricky part of the marriage strategy. It was found that the males of some fish, showing its unusual orientation, this increase attractiveness to females. So enamored with the pairing of the females are certainly not neglected. But the most thorough explanation of the origin of homosexuality, based on epigenetic data. According to some scientists, non-standard sexual orientation is due to the fact that the embryo is formed on the DNA is too strong epigenetic protection of sex hormones, without which the nervous system can be formed, so to speak, with a difference.
|Female bonobos engaged in "career development" with another female. (Photo Zanna Clay / University of St Andrews.)|
Here we stop permitted say, as you can see, not a word (or almost a word) is not actually saying about love, without any hormonal contaminants there, even though in the beginning was commemorated by Shakespeare. Here, however, we prefer not to quote Shakespeare, and the same "Blue Book": "And as to more precise studies in this area, we know a little something about it. And, perhaps, do not even need to know. Since mind and darkens almost spoils everything what it touches. "